ప్రధాన English Vocabulary in Use: Advanced
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VOCABULARY 9780 110 7619500 CALD 4 C M Y K Simon Haines Mark Nettle with Martin Hewings M Y K On the CD-ROM: • Two extra exercises for each unit English Vocabulary in Use in Use ISBN 978 0521 71266 8 ISBN 978 0521 67746 2 C1–C2 CEFR level: English Profile www.englishprofile.org Cambridge English exams: English Vocabulary in Use Mac OSX 10.6, 10.7 or 10.8 C2 Proficiency (CPE) Advanced C1 Advanced (CAE) Third Edition with answers and eBook B2 Upper Intermediate First (FCE) B1 + • Learn useful collocations from a wide range of topics relevant to modern life such as: opening gambit, work up an appetite and star-studded cast • Avoid common mistakes and improve your exam results by studying error warnings – based on real student errors from Cambridge ESOL papers for CAE, CPE and IELTS • Develop better learning strategies through study tips and follow-up activities • 60 easy-to-use two-page units: collocations are presented and explained on left-hand pages with a range of practice exercises on right-hand pages. • Presents and explains approximately 1,500 collocations in typical contexts using short texts, dialogues, tables and charts. • Contains a comprehensive answer key and full index for easy reference. • Highlights register to help students choose the appropriate language for particular situations. • Informed by the Cambridge English Corpus to ensure that the most frequently used collocations are presented. English Phrasal Verbs ISBN 978 0521 68418 7 Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Fourth Edition For upper-intermediate to advanced learners of English English Collocations Ideal for IELTS, BEC, and Cambridge English: First, Advanced, and Proficiency exam preparation. With clear definitions and over 140,000 words, phrases, meanings, and examples, plus hundreds of pictures and illustrations, this dictionary is perfect as a reference tool and as a study companion. Informed by the Cambridge International Corpus and correlated to English Vocabulary Profile, it is also perfect ; for exam preparation. The CD-ROM contains the complete dictionary and recordings in British and American English. in Use NEW! Focus on Writing section deals with all the essential aspects of academic, formal, and informal writing. NEW! Up-to-date vocabulary includes words from the areas of technology, media, language, society, and lifestyle, plus important words for academic study. Advanced Learner error information shows the most common errors made by learners of English, so that you can avoid making the same mistakes. How words work together for fluent and natural English English Vocabulary Profile correlation shows which words and meanings are known by learners at what level, so you can prioritize your vocabulary learning. Includes eBook with audio Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Fourth Edition NEW FOCUS ON WRITING SECTION With CD-ROM Felicity O’Dell Michael McCarthy Preliminary (PET) A2 Key (KET) in Use Glossary Glossary of of terms terms used used in in phonetics phonetics and and phonology phonology notes notes on on the the relationship relationship between between spellings spellings and and sounds sounds Advanced PLUS: PLUS: The The CD-ROM CD-ROM provides provides these these extras: extras: spoken spoken British British and and American American pronunciations pronunciations of of every every headword headword ‘record ‘record yourself’ yourself’ function function to to practise practise your your pronunciation pronunciation Search Search by by alphabetic alphabetic characters characters or or phonetic phonetic symbols symbols Vocabulary reference and practice with answers With CD-ROM NEW FOCUS ON WRITING SECTION ISBN 978 1 107 61950 0 Improve your understanding of differences in spoken English, with comparisons of everyday conversations and formal situations. ENGLISH With CD-ROM English EnglishPronunciation Pronunciationin inUse Use Advanced Advanced En En gg lish lishPronunciation PronunciationininUse UseAdvanced Advancedisisfor forlearners learnersofofadvanced advanced level. level.The Thematerial materialisisaddressed addressedtotothe theindividual individuallearner learnerwho whomay maybe be working workingalone, alone,but butititcan canalso alsobe beused usedininthe theclassroom. classroom. This Thisbook bookcovers coversall allaspects aspectsofofpronunciation pronunciationinincommunication communication lish lish including includingword wordstress, stress,connected connectedspeech speechand andintonation. intonation.En Engg Pronunciation PronunciationininUse UseAdvanced Advancedrecognises recognisesthe theimportance importanceofof pronunciation pronunciationfor forlistening listeningas aswell wellas asspeaking speakingand andlearners learnersare are provided providedwith withboth bothreceptive receptiveand andproductive productivepractice. practice. En Eng g lish lishPronunciation PronunciationininUse UseAdvanced Advanced easy-to-use two-page two-page units: units: explanations explanations and and examples examples ofof key key ••6060easy-to-use pronunciation pronunciation points points are are presented presented onon left-hand left-hand pages pages with with a range a range ofof exercises exercises onon facing facing right-hand right-hand pages. pages. Audio components: components: allall the the examples examples and and exercises exercises are are recorded recorded and and ••Audio available available onon audio audio CD. CD. ••Clear Clear model model forfor repetition: repetition: a British a British accent accent is is used used asas a model a model forfor learners learners toto listen listen toto and and repeat. repeat. Exposure toto different different accents: accents: learners learners are are given given the the opportunity opportunity toto ••Exposure listen listen toto a range a range ofof different different English English accents accents and and learn learn about about their their similarities similarities and and differences. differences. 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The TheCambridge CambridgeInternational InternationalCorpus Corpus (CIC) (CIC)is isa acollection collectionofofover over1 1billion billion Learner-friendly answer answer key. key. ••Learner-friendly words wordsofofreal realspoken spokenand andwritten written Martin Hewings Also Alsoavailable: available:Advanced AdvancedGrammar Grammarin inUse Use English EnglishVocabulary Vocabularyin inUse UseAdvanced Advanced Cambridge CambridgeEnglish EnglishPronouncing PronouncingDictionary Dictionary ISBN ISBN 978 978 0 521 0 521 61403 61403 00 ISBN ISBN 978 978 0 521 0 521 67746 67746 22 WRITING SECTION CD-ROM English Pronunciation Pronunciation Advanced Advanced Martin MartinHewings Hewings ISBN ISBN 978 978 00 521 521 61956 61956 11 Daniel Jones edited by Peter Roach, Jane Setter & John Esling Also available with answers and eBook Dictionary 18th Edition Second Edition Self-study Self-study and and classroom classroom use use Michael McCarthy Felicity O’Dell English. English. The Thetexts textsare arestored storedinina a database databasethat thatcan canbebesearched searchedtotosee seehow howEnglish Englishis is used. used. The TheCIC CICcontains containsover over4545million millionwords wordsofof spoken spoken English, English, including including the the 5 million-word 5 million-word CANCODE CANCODE corpus, corpus, collected collectedjointly jointlybybyCambridge CambridgeUniversity University Press Pressand andthe theUniversity UniversityofofNottingham. Nottingham. The Thespoken spoken corpus corpusfrom fromthe theCIC CICwas wasused usedininwriting writingthis thisbook. book. www.cambridge.org/corpus www.cambridge.org/corpus ISBN ISBN 978 978 0 521 0 521 68087 68087 55 ISBN ISBN 978 978 00 521 521 71740 71740 33 NEW FOCUS ON ISBN 978 1 107 61950 0 English Pronouncing With CD-ROM ADVANCED GRAMMAR IN USE ENGLISH VOCABULARY IN USE ADVANCED CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY ISBN 978 1 107 53930 3 ISBN 978 1 107 63776 4 Better Learning Includes eBook with audio is our simple approach where ISBN 978 0 521 15253 2 deeper insights help shape richer content that drives stronger results. Discover more: cambridge.org/betterlearning Martin Hewings ISBN 978 1 107 53930 3 English Idioms in Use Advanced is a vocabulary book for advanced-level learners. It is primarily designed as a self-study reference and practice book but it can also be used for classroom work. • 60 easy-to-use two-page units. Idioms are presented and explained on lefthand pages with a range of practice exercises on right-hand pages. PRONUNCIATION Self-study and classroom use Also available • Presents and explains idioms in typical contexts using short texts and clear example sentences. • Based on a corpus of real written and spoken language to ensure the most useful and relevant idioms at this level are presented. • Provides valuable information about register and usage to help students develop more natural-sounding English. IN USE • Promotes good learning habits with study tips and follow-up tasks. • Helps you avoid common pitfalls with error warning notes highlighting typical mistakes made by learners at this level. Advanced ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS IN USE ADVANCED ENGLISH COLLOCATIONS IN USE ADVANCED ENGLISH VOCABULARY IN USE ADVANCED Third Edition Cambridge 18th Edition C1–C2 Cambridge Dictionary Self-study and classroom use dictionary.cambridge.org ISBN 978 0 521 70780 0 9780 521 15255 6 Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary cvr C M Y K M Y K 9781107539303 Hewings: Advanced Grammar in Use With answers & ebook 3rd Edition Cover C 9780 110 7619500 CALD 4 C M Y K To find out more about the English Vocabulary in Use series, visit www.cambridge.org/elt/inuse • Personalised, printable tests – ideal for A self-study reference and practice book exam practice For Windows® Vista or Windows® 7 / 8learners and forXP,advanced of English Also available: English Collocations in Use Advanced B1 Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Fourth Edition English Collocations in Use Advanced Collocations are word combinations that frequently appear together. This book will help you master collocations, which will make your English sound more natural and fluent. English Collocations in Use Advanced Also available: English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary English Vocabulary in Use Advanced over over 230,000 230,000 pronunciations pronunciations of of words, words, names names and and phrases phrases new new words words and and names names of of people people and and places places in in the the news news The The World World of of English English Pronunciation Pronunciation –– lively lively essays essays on on aspects aspects of of pronunciation pronunciation by by leading leading experts experts in in the the fifield eld NEW FOCUS ON WRITING SECTION With CD-ROM • Remember words more effectively with lots of opportunities for personalised practice. • listen to new words as well as reading them • bookmark pages, highlight text and add notes to help you remember words. NEW COVER ISBN XX NEW COVER ISBN XX ENGLISH IDIOMS IN USE 60 units of vocabulary reference and practice Also available Self-study and classroom use Second Edition CEF Advanced C1–C2 Martin Hewings NEW COVER Advanced WRITING SECTION The The 18th 18th edition edition features: features: with answers dictionary.cambridge.org ENGLISH IDIOMS IN USE Advanced Advanced NEW FOCUS ON Understand how pronunciation works, including individual sounds, word stress, connected speech and intonation. • Editio Cambridge n English Pronouncing Dictionary 18th Edition English English pronunciation pronunciation –– from from aardvark aardvark to to zymotic zymotic and and Adobe Adobe to to Zuma! Zuma! The The 18th 18th edition edition of of Daniel Daniel Jones’s Jones’s classic classic work work is is the the defi definitive nitive guide guide to to contemporary contemporary English English pronunciation. pronunciation. English Vocabulary Advanced Advanced With CD-ROM best-selli series ng English English Pronunciation Pronunciation in in Use Use Fourth Edition ISBN 978 1 107 61950 0 • Hewings Hewings With CD-ROM Practise your pronunciation with simple ‘listen and repeat’ activities, modelled with a clear British English accent. Cambridge Pronouncing Dictionary Advanced Grammar in Use Supplementary Exercises with answers Advanced Learner’s Dictionary NEW FOCUS ON WRITING SECTION world’s grammar McCarthy and O’Dell English Vocabulary in Use Advanced Cambridge with answers Simon Haines Mark Nettle with Martin Hewings Advanced Learner’s Dictionary NEW! Focus on Writing section deals with all the essential aspects of academic, formal, and informal writing. NEW! Up-to-date vocabulary includes words from the areas of technology, media, language, society, and lifestyle, plus important words for academic study. Cambridge Fourth Edition English Vocabulary Profile correlation shows which words and meanings are known by learners at what level, so you can prioritize your vocabulary learning. dictionary.cambridge.org • New The English Vocabulary in Use Advanced Second Edition Do you want to improve your vocabulary quickly? English Vocabulary in Use Advanced is fully aligned to the needs of English language learners at C1–C2 level, so it will help you learn the words and phrases you require. This second edition of the best-selling vocabulary book is ideal for self-study, but can also be used in the classroom. It now offers: • Fully updated units informed by the English Profile wordlists, so you learn the most important vocabulary at advanced level. • New words presented and explained in context, so that you can clearly see how to use them. • Lots of opportunities for personalised practice, to help with the learning process. • A ‘common mistakes’ feature which helps you avoid frequent errors. O’Dell and McCarthy English Collocations in Use Advanced Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Details and access code inside. Learner error information shows the most common errors made by learners of English, so that you can avoid making the same mistakes. Advanced Learner’s Cambridge Dictionary • Online version for Windows and Mac (requires Chrome browser) Haines & Nettle with Hewings English Vocabulary Profile correlation shows which words and meanings are known by learners at what level, so you can prioritize your vocabulary learning. • listen to examples to help with listening and pronunciation • do exercises, save answers and check them with an answer key • bookmark pages, highlight text and add notes. *eBook available for both tablets and PCs/Macs: • Downloadable version for iOS and Android (requires free Cambridge Bookshelf app) Also available: Advanced Grammar in Use Supplementary Exercises Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Advanced Grammar in Use Extra Activities app Cambridge Advanced Grammar in Use Supplementary Exercises with answers NEW! Focus on Writing section deals with all the essential aspects of academic, formal, and informal writing. NEW! Up-to-date vocabulary includes words from the areas of technology, media, language, society, and lifestyle, plus important words for academic study. Learner error information shows the most common errors made by learners of English, so that you can avoid making the same mistakes. Advanced Learner’s Haines & Nettle with Hewings Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Also inside is a code for an interactive eBook*. This has the same grammar explanations and exercises as in the printed book. This makes it perfect for studying grammar anytime and anywhere. With the eBook learners can: CEFR Levels C1, C2 Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Fourth Edition For upper-intermediate to advanced learners of English Ideal for IELTS, BEC, and Cambridge English: First, Advanced, and Proficiency exam preparation. With clear definitions and over 140,000 words, phrases, meanings, and examples, plus hundreds of pictures and illustrations, this dictionary is perfect as a reference tool and as a study companion. Informed by the Cambridge International Corpus and correlated to English Vocabulary Profile, it is also perfect for exam preparation. The CD-ROM contains the complete dictionary and recordings in British and American English. ISBN 978 0 521 78807 6 Listen to a variety of English accents, to hear the similarities and the differences. A self-study reference and practice book for advanced learners of English Advanced Grammar in Use With answers and eBook • Third Edition A self-study reference and practice book for advanced learners of English Advanced Grammar in Use Third Edition meets the advanced-level learner’s needs with comprehensive grammar coverage and a user-friendly layout. This edition: • contains 100 units of grammar reference and practice materials • facilitates self-study by featuring a Study planner to help learners identify which grammar to focus on • has a comprehensive Grammar reminder section to allow learners to double-check language areas they have already studied • is informed by the Cambridge International Corpus to ensure the language is authentic and up to date • provides ideal support for students preparing for IELTS, Cambridge English: Advanced or Cambridge English: Proficiency examinations. Hewings Advanced Grammar in Use with answers and eBook Also available: Advanced Grammar in Use Supplementary Exercises Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Advanced Grammar in Use Extra Activities app Learn to speak clearly with 60 units of explanations, examples and exercises. • 9780521619561 HEWINGS: HEWINGS: EPIU EPIU ADVANCED ADVANCED CVR CVR CMYBLK CMYBLK 9780521619561 Full details and access code inside. 9781108403498 - HEWINGS - ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION ADVANCED C M Y K • Online version for Windows and Mac (requires Chrome browser) • This book comes with over four hours of free downloadable audio. See code and instructions inside. 978-0-521-70780-0 MCCARTHY & O’DELL :ENGLISH COLLOCATIONS IN USE ADVANCED C M Y K • do exercises, save answers and check them with an answer key • bookmark pages, highlight text and add notes. *eBook available for both tablets and PCs/Macs: • Downloadable version for iOS and Android (requires free Cambridge Bookshelf app) CEFR Levels C1, C2 Understand and be understood in English. Pronunciation explanations, audio and practice for advanced level (C1-C2) learners of English. Perfect for both self-study and classroom activities. 9780 110 7619500 CALD 4 C M Y K • listen to examples to help with listening and pronunciation Advanced 9781107637764 McCarthy & O’Dell: English Vocabulary in Use with awnswers & CD-ROM 2nd Edition Cover C M Y K With the eBook learners can: Cambridge 9781107539303 Hewings: Advanced Grammar in Use With answers & ebook 3rd Edition Cover C Also inside is a code for an interactive eBook*. This has the same grammar explanations and exercises as in the printed book. This makes it perfect for studying grammar anytime and anywhere. Fourth Edition Be confident about what you are learning, thanks to Cambridge research into how English is really spoken and written. Felicity O’Dell Michael McCarthy ISBN XX Better Learning is our simple approach where deeper insights help shape richer content that Free downloadable audio drives stronger results. Discover more: cambridge.org/betterlearning ISBN 978 1 108 40349 8 ADVANCED GRAMMAR IN USE ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION IN USE ADVANCED ENGLISH IDIOMS IN USE ADVANCED ENGLISH VOCABULARY Vocabulary reference and practice Advanced Michael McCarthy Felicity O’Dell ISBN 978 1 316 62973 4 Better Learning is our simple approach where deeper insights help shape richer content that drives stronger results. Discover more: cambridge.org/betterlearning IN USE Third Edition Advanced • provides ideal support for students preparing for IELTS, Cambridge English: Advanced or Cambridge English: Proficiency examinations. For upper-intermediate to advanced learners of English • with ebook • is informed by the Cambridge International Corpus to ensure the language is authentic and up to date Ideal for IELTS, BEC, and Cambridge English: First, Advanced, and Proficiency exam preparation. Learn words in context, with 101 different topics, including ‘Applying for a job’, ‘Illness’ and ‘Easily confused words’. ENGLISH IDIOMS IN USE • has a comprehensive Grammar reminder section to allow learners to double-check language areas they have already studied IN USE ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION IN USE • facilitates self-study by featuring a Study planner to help learners identify which grammar to focus on With clear definitions and over 140,000 words, phrases, meanings, and examples, plus hundreds of pictures and illustrations, this dictionary is perfect as a reference tool and as a study companion. • O’Dell and McCarthy • contains 100 units of grammar reference and practice materials The wo gra rld’s mm be ar st-se seri llin es g ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION Martin Hewings A self-study reference and practice book for advanced learners of English Informed by the Cambridge International Corpus and correlated to English Vocabulary Profile, it is also perfect for exam preparation. Expand your vocabulary with easy to understand explanations and practice exercises. *The ebook has the same content as the printed book and works on Macs, PCs and tablets. Online version for Windows and Mac (requires Chrome browser). Downloadable version for iOS and Android tablets (requires free Cambridge Bookshelf app). Instructions and access code inside. Advanced Grammar in Use Third Edition meets the advanced-level learner’s needs with comprehensive grammar coverage and a user-friendly layout. This edition: The CD-ROM contains the complete dictionary and recordings in British and American English. • Also inside is a code for an ebook*. With the ebook you can: Advanced Grammar in Use With answers and eBook • Third Edition ISBN 978 0 521 78807 6 The words you need to communicate with confidence. Vocabulary explanations and practice for advanced level (C1-C2) learners of English. Perfect for both self-study and classroom activities. Hewings Advanced Grammar in Use with answers and eBook 978 1 316 63006 8 McCarthy & O’Dell: English Vocabulary in Use Advanced Cover C Advanced ENGLISH VOCABULARY IN USE M Y K IN USE McCarthy and O’Dell ENGLISH Includes ebook with audio ENGLISH VOCABULARY Vocabulary reference and practice with answers and ebook Third Edition IN USE Advanced Michael McCarthy Felicity O’Dell University Printing House, Cambridge CB2 8BS, United Kingdom One Liberty Plaza, 20th Floor, New York, NY 10006, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia 4843/24, 2nd Floor, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, Delhi – 110002, India 79 Anson Road, #06–04/06, Singapore 079906 Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge. It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence. www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/elt © Cambridge University Press 2017 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2002 Third Edition 2017 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Printed in Dubai by Oriental Press A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-131663006-8 Edition with answers and ebook ISBN 978-131663117-1 Edition with answers ISBN 978-131663118-8 ebook Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter. Contents Thanks Introduction Work and study 1 Cramming for success: study and academic work 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 8 10 Applying for a job 12 Job interviews 14 At work: colleagues and routines 16 At work: job satisfaction 18 At work: careers 20 negative qualities 22 Describing people: appearance and mannerisms 24 Describing people: personality and character traits 26 Relationships: friends forever 28 Relationships: ups and downs 30 Emotions and reactions 32 Negative feelings 34 Birth and death: from cradle to grave 36 Leisure and lifestyle 16 Free time: relaxation and leisure 17 All the rage: clothes and fashion 18 Home styles, lifestyles 19 Socialising and networking 20 The performance arts: reviews 21 22 23 24 6 Education: debates and issues People and relationships 8 Describing people: positive and 9 5 38 40 42 44 and critiques 46 The visual arts 48 Talking about books 50 Food: a recipe for disaster 52 Dinner’s on me: entertaining and eating out 54 Travel 25 On the road: traffic and driving 26 Travel and accommodation 27 Attracting tourists The environment 28 Describing the world 29 Weather and climate 30 Brick walls and glass ceilings 31 Taking root and reaping rewards 32 The animal kingdom 33 Our endangered world Society and institutions 34 Here to help: customer service 35 Authorities: customs and police 36 Beliefs 37 Festivals in their cultural context 38 Talking about language 39 History: since the dawn of civilisation 40 The haves and the have-nots 41 British politics 42 International politics 43 The letter of the law 44 War and peace 45 Economy and finance 46 Personal finance: making ends meet The media 47 The media: in print 48 The media: internet and email 49 Advertising 50 The news: gathering and delivering English Vocabulary in Use Advanced 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 3 Health 51 Healthcare 52 Illness: feeling under the weather 53 Medical language 54 Diet, sport and fitness Technology 55 Industries: from manufacturing 56 57 58 110 112 114 to service 116 Technology and its impact 118 Technology of the future 120 Energy: from fossil fuels to windmills 122 Basic concepts 59 Space: no room to swing a cat 60 Time: once in a blue moon 61 Motion: taking steps 62 Manner: behaviour and body 124 126 128 language 130 63 64 65 66 67 68 Sounds: listen up! 132 Weight and density 134 All the colours of the rainbow 136 Speed: fast and slow 138 Cause and effect 140 Spot the difference: making comparisons 142 69 70 Difficulties and dilemmas 144 Modality: expressing facts, opinions, desires 146 71 Number: statistics and quantity 148 Functional vocabulary 72 Permission: getting the go-ahead 73 Complaining and protesting 74 Apology, regret and reconciliation 75 A pat on the back: complimenting 76 77 78 4 108 150 152 154 and praising 156 Promises and bets 158 Reminiscences and regrets 160 Agreement, disagreement and compromise 162 English Vocabulary in Use Advanced 79 80 81 82 83 Academic writing: making sense 164 Academic writing: text structure 166 Writing: style and format 168 Whatchamacallit: being indirect 170 Give or take: more vague expressions 172 84 The way you say it 174 Words and meanings 85 Abbreviations and acronyms 86 Prefixes: creating new meanings 87 Suffixes: forming new words 88 Word-building and 89 90 91 176 178 180 word-blending 182 English: a global language 184 Easily confused words 186 One word, many meanings 188 Fixed expressions and figurative language 92 Collocation: which words go together 190 93 94 Metaphor: seeing the light 192 Idioms for everyday situations and feelings 194 95 96 Brushing up on phrasal verbs 196 Connotation: making associations 198 Language variation 97 Register: degrees of formality 98 Divided by a common language 99 Language and gender 100 In the headlines 101 Red tape 200 202 204 206 208 Answer key 210 Phonemic symbols 276 Index 277 Acknowledgements 299 Enhanced ebook 301 Thanks and acknowledgements Joy Godwin wrote two units for the Third Edition: Unit 3, Applying for a job, and Unit 4, Job interviews. The publishers would like to thank Joy for her contribution to this edition. English Vocabulary in Use Advanced 5 Introduction To the student This book has been written to help you expand your vocabulary at the advanced level. You already know thousands of English words, but to express yourself fully and in a sophisticated way at the advanced level, you will ideally need between 6,000 and 8,000 words, so increasing your vocabulary is very important for your general progress in English, as well as for any academic, professional or vocational needs you may have where English plays an important role. At the advanced level, as well as learning new words, you will need to learn more about the subtle connotations of words, aspects of register and style and how words combine into collocations, compounds and fixed phrases. In this book, there are over 3,000 new words and expressions for you to learn. You will find them on the left-hand page of each unit. Every new word or phrase is used in a sentence, or in a conversation, or is in a table, or has a picture with it, or has some explanation of what it means. On the right-hand page there are exercises and other activities to help you practise using the words and to help you to remember them. Where our research shows that learners frequently make errors, we give you advice on how to avoid the most common ones, as well as other useful language tips. The book has been written so that you can use it yourself, without a teacher. You can do the units in any order you like, but we have grouped them into themes, so you might wish to work through several units on a particular area of vocabulary before moving to a new one. The Answer key at the end of the book is for you to check your answers to the exercises after you do them. The key sometimes has more than one answer. This is because often there is not just one correct way of saying something. Where you are asked to talk about yourself, in the Over to you activities, we do not provide answers, since this is your opportunity to work completely independently and in a very personal way, so everyone’s answer will be very different. The Index at the end of the book has all the important words and phrases from the left-hand pages. The Index also tells you how to pronounce words. There is a table of phonemic symbols to help you understand the pronunciation on page 276. You should also have a dictionary with you when you use the book. You can use a paper dictionary, an electronic one, or you can go to Cambridge Dictionaries Online at http://dictionary.cambridge.org. Access to a dictionary is useful because sometimes you may want to check the meaning of something or find a word in your own language to help you remember the English word. Sometimes, you will also need a dictionary for the exercises; we tell you when this is so. To learn a lot of vocabulary, you have to do two things: 1 Study each unit of the book carefully and do all the exercises. Check your answers in the key. Repeat the units after a month, and then again after three months, and see how much you have learnt and how much you have forgotten. Repeating work is very important. 2 Develop ways of your own to study and learn new words and phrases which are not in this book. For example, every time you see or hear an interesting phrase, write it in a notebook, and write who said it or wrote it, and in what situation, as well as what it means. Making notes of the situations words are used in will help you to remember them and to use them at the right moment. We hope you like this book. You can also go to the other books in the series which have more specialised titles: English Idioms in Use, English Phrasal Verbs in Use and English Collocations in Use, which are available at advanced level, as well as Academic Vocabulary in Use. Find out more at the Vocabulary in Use website: www.cambridge.org/elt/inuse. 6 English Vocabulary in Use Advanced To the teacher This book can be used in class or as a self-study book. It is intended to take learners from an upper-intermediate level of vocabulary to an advanced level. The vocabulary has been chosen for its usefulness in everyday situations, and we consulted the Cambridge English Corpus, a billion-word-plus written and spoken corpus of present-day English which includes a huge learner corpus, to help us decide on the words and phrases to be included and to help us understand the typical problems learners encounter at the advanced level. We also consulted the English Vocabulary Profile to make sure that the words in the book are a representative sample of vocabulary that is typical of the Common European Framework levels C1 and C2. Visit the English Vocabulary Profile at www.cambridge.org/elt/inuse. At the advanced level, as well as learning a large number of new words and expressions, learners are often directing their efforts towards academic, professional or vocational needs, and so we have tried to offer a modern, sophisticated vocabulary that will underpin their work in other areas. The new vocabulary (on average 40 items per unit) is presented with explanations on the left-hand page, and there are exercises and activities on the right-hand page. There is an Answer key and an Index with pronunciation for all the target vocabulary. The key at the end of the book is for students to check their answers to the exercises after they do them. The key sometimes has more than one answer. This is because often there is not just one correct way of saying something. Where students are asked to talk about themselves, in the Over to you activities, we do not provide answers, since this gives learners the opportunity to work completely independently and in a very personal way, so everyone’s answer will be very different. The book focuses not just on single words, but on useful phrases and collocations, and the vocabulary is illustrated in natural contexts. The book is organised around everyday topics, but also has units devoted to basic concepts such as time, modality, manner and varieties and style. Typical errors are indicated where appropriate, based on information from the Cambridge Learner Corpus, and the most typical meanings and uses are focused on for each key item. The right-hand pages offer a variety of different types of activities, some traditional ones such as gap-filling, but also more open-ended ones and personalised activities which enable learners to talk about their own lives. Although the activities and exercises are designed for self-study, they can be easily adapted for pairwork, groupwork or whole-class activities in the usual way. When the learners have worked through a group of units, it is a good idea to repeat some of the work (for example, the exercises) and to expand on the meaning and use of key words and phrases by extra discussion in class, and find other examples of the key items in other texts and situations. This can be done at intervals of one to three months after first working on a unit. This is important, since it is usually the case that a learner needs five to seven exposures to a word or phrase before they can really begin to know it, and no single book can do enough to ensure that words are always learnt first time. It is especially important at the advanced level to discuss in detail the meanings and uses of words and phrases and how they combine and collocate with one another. Your students can also consult the more specialised higher level books in this series: the advanced levels of English Idioms in Use, English Phrasal Verbs in Use and English Collocations in Use, or they may wish to work on academic vocabulary by using Academic Vocabulary in Use, all by the same authors as this book. They can also test themselves on the knowledge they have gained from this and the other books in the series by using the separate books of tests that accompany the series. You can find out more at the Vocabulary in Use website: www.cambridge.org/elt/inuse. We hope you enjoy using the book. English Vocabulary in Use Advanced 7 Cramming for success: study and academic work 1 A Study and exams Before an exam, some students cram1 for it. Even if you’re a genius2, you’ll have to do some revision. If the exam happens every year, you can revise by looking at past papers3. Some things can be memorised or learnt (off ) by heart. But rote-learning4 is not sufficient for most subjects. It is also possible to use mnemonics5. However, all things considered, the best idea is to bury yourself in your books6 and to study intensively7 until you know the subject inside out8. B 1 study in a very concentrated way for a short time 2 an exceptionally clever person 3 exam papers from previous years 4 learning purely by repetition 5 /niˈmɒnɪks/ tricks that help you remember something, for example: ‘i’ before ‘e’ except after ‘c’ is a mnemonic for English spelling (e.g. friend, but receive) 6 spend the maximum time studying 7 in a very focused way 8 know it completely Academic writing composition could be just 50–100 words, often used for school work essay longer than a composition, more serious, hundreds or thousands of words assignment a long essay, often part of a course, usually thousands of words project like an assignment, but emphasis on student’s own material and topic portfolio a collection of individual pieces of work; may include drawings and other examples of creative work as well as writing dissertation a long, research-based work, perhaps 10–15,000 words, for a degree or diploma thesis a very long, original, research-based work, perhaps 80–100,000 words, for a higher degree (e.g. PhD) It’s a good idea to start with a mind map1 when preparing an essay. Always write a first draft2 before writing up the final version. Your essay should be all your own work; plagiarism3 is a very serious offence in colleges and universities. It is an increasing problem because it is so easy to cut and paste from materials available on the internet, and students have to sign a plagiarism form to say that the work they are handing in is all their own and that they acknowledge4 any sources they have used. There is usually a deadline5. After the essay is submitted6, it will be assessed7 and usually you can get feedback8. 1 diagram that lays out ideas for a topic and how they are connected to one another 2 first, rough version /pledərzəm/ using other people’s work as if it was yours 4 give details of 5 date by which you must hand in the work 6 handed in; formal 7 evaluated and given a grade 8 comments from the teacher/tutor 3 C Aspects of higher academic study 1 less formal is do research magazines with academic articles (we do not use the word magazine to talk about this kind of academic publication) 3 get hold of (it) on the internet 4 system where libraries exchange books/journals with one another 2 HOME 1 FACULTY RESEARCH University academics carry out research and are expected to read academic journals2, which publish papers/articles on specialised subjects. If a library does not have a copy of a book or journal, you may be able to access it online3 or you can usually get it through an inter-library loan4. Open educational resources5 are particularly convenient for many students. Academic study can be very demanding, and some students drop out6, but the majority survive till finals7 and become well-qualified8 members of their future professions. 5 online materials that can be freely used by teachers and students anywhere 6 leave the course before the end 7 last exams before the end of a college or university course 8 with the right formal qualifications 8 English Vocabulary in Use Advanced Exercises 1.1 Correct the wrong usage of words to do with written work in these sentences. 1 His PhD assignment was 90,000 words long and was on the history of US place names. 2 Little Martha did her first dissertation in school today. It was called ‘My family’. 3 We have to hand in an essay at the end of the course. It can consist of up to five different pieces of work. 4 The teacher gave us the title of this week’s project today. We have to write 1,000 words on the topic of ‘If I ruled the world’ and hand it in next Monday. 5 At the end of this course, you have to do a 5,000-word thesis which will be assessed, and the grade will contribute to your final degree. 6 I think I’ll do a study of people’s personal banking habits for my MSc composition. It has to be about 12,000 words. 7 I’ve chosen to do the portfolio instead of the two exams, because I like to do one single piece of work where I can research something that interests me personally. 1.2 Rewrite this text using words and phrases from the opposite page instead of the underlined words. When I’m studying in a very focused way because I’m preparing hard for an exam, I don’t see any point in looking up exam papers from previous years, nor is there any point in just learning things by memory. I know some people develop very clever memory tricks to help them remember the material, but there’s no real substitute for rereading and going over the term’s work. It’s a good idea to have some sort of diagram showing different ideas to organise your thoughts, and memory-learning is useful, but in a limited way. At the end of the day, you just have to read a huge amount until you feel you know the subject 100%. 1.3 Answer these questions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1.4 What do we call the first attempt at writing something, e.g. an essay? What word means ‘the date by which you must do something’? What word means ‘using someone else’s ideas as if they were yours’? What are more formal words for ‘to hand in’ and for ‘to mark’? What phrasal verb do we use when someone doesn’t complete their course? What is another word for an academic article? Where can you read them? What is the name of the system for getting books from other libraries? What word means ‘the comments you get back from the teacher about your work’? What word can you use for a person who is extraordinarily intelligent? What is a more formal way of saying ‘do research’? Choose the best word from the opposite page to complete these sentences. 1 If you quote an article in an essay, you must your source, giving details of author and title. 2 Open educational can be particularly useful for students who do not have easy access to a university library. 3 How much have you done for tomorrow’s maths exam? 4 Don’t forget to sign the form and hand it in with your dissertation. 5 Some people take a long time to find suitable work even though they are very . published in the British Medical Journal. 6 Orla has had a 7 All students need a username and password to be able to journals online. 8 Caspar is bound to do well in his mechanics exam – he knows the subject out. English Vocabulary in Use Advanced 9 2 Education: debates and issues A Opportunity and equality All education systems may ultimately be judged in terms of equality of opportunity1. This is often referred to in the debates over selective2 versus comprehensive3 schooling4. The main issue is whether everyone has the same opportunities for educational achievement or whether elitism5 of one sort or another is inherent in6 the system. League tables7 for schools and colleges may actually help unintentionally to perpetuate8 inequalities, while claiming to promote the raising of standards. Inevitably, league tables divide educational institutions into good and bad, success and failure, resulting in a two-tier system9, or at least that is how the public perceives10 it. The ability of better-off11 parents and wellendowed12 schools to push children towards the institutions at the top of the league may, in the long term, have the effect of depressing13 opportunity for the less well-off14 or for children from home environments that do not provide the push and motivation to excel15. Financial support of different kinds can help to make educational opportunity more equal. There are, for example, scholarships16 or bursaries17 that make it possible for less privileged youngsters to afford tertiary18 education. Student loans19 allow undergraduates20 to pay for their tuition fees21 and living expenses while they are studying. But few would claim that real equality of opportunity has been achieved. 1 11 2 12 when everyone has the same chances pupils are chosen for entry, usually for academic reasons, though, in the case of some private schools, parents’ ability to pay school fees may be a factor in selection 3 everyone enters without exams and education is free, paid for by the government 4 education received at school 5 when you favour a small, privileged group 6 existing as a basic part of something 7 lists of schools or colleges, from the best down to the worst, based on exam results and, sometimes, other criteria 8 make something continue 9 a system with two separate levels, one of which is better than the other 10 sees, considers B Other debates and issues Some people think we should return to an emphasis on the three Rs, the traditional, basic skills. [reading, writing and arithmetic] Literacy and numeracy are skills no one can afford to be without. [the ability to read] richer receiving a lot of money in grants, gifts from rich people, etc. [= endowments] 13 reducing 14 poorer 15 achieve an excellent standard 16 money given to pay for studies, usually provided on the basis of academic merit 17 money given to pay for studies, usually provided on the basis of need 18 education at university or college level 19 money that students can borrow from a bank while studying and then pay back once they are in work 20 students doing a first degree [postgraduates = students doing a further degree] 21 money paid to receive teaching Language help Notice how compound adjectives like well-off, well-endowed, high-achieving, badly-performing can be used in comparative and superlative forms, e.g. better-off, best-endowed, higher-achieving, worst-performing. [the ability to count / do basic maths] Curriculum reform is often done for political reasons rather than for good educational ones. [changes to what is covered in the national syllabus = plan of what is to be studied] Nowadays, lifelong/continuing education is an issue, and creating opportunities for mature students is important. [education for all ages] [adult students older than the average student] Special needs education is expensive because class sizes need to be small or one-to-one. [education for children who cannot learn in the normal way, because they have some disability] [one teacher and one pupil, not a group] Children are unhappy at school if there is a lot of bullying. [threatening behaviour] Some headteachers complain that getting to grips with constant new government guidelines on what schools should be doing is a distraction from what they ought to be focusing on. [advice (often official) on how something should be done] [takes attention away] 10 English Vocabulary in Use Advanced Exercises 2.1 Complete the collocations by filling in the missing words according to the meaning given in brackets. 1 2 3 equality of 4 5 2.2 tables (lists of schools from best to worst) education (entry to schools is decided by exam results) (when everyone has the same chances) inequalities (make inequalities continue) education (at university or college level) Rewrite these sentences so they are more formal by using words and phrases from the opposite page instead of the underlined words. Make any other changes that are necessary. 1 Inequality is built into the education system. 2 Giving access only to privileged groups is bad for the country in the long term. 3 Education where everyone gets into the same type of school without exams is a basic political ideal in many countries. 4 A system where there are two levels of schools reduces the opportunities for children from poorer families and favours those from richer families. 5 Some private schools have lots of wealth and receive gifts of money, and this means they can have better resources. 6 All parents want their children to achieve the best possible results at school. 7 Emphasis on the three Rs is considered by parents to be the key to success. 8 The government is increasing its provision for education that young people can enter after finishing secondary school. 2.3 Correct these statements about words or expressions from the opposite page. Correct each of them twice – once by changing the definition and once by changing the word being defined. 1 One-to-one education is another way of saying continuing education. One-to-one education means a situation where there is one teacher and one student. Lifelong education is another way of saying continuing education. 2 Numeracy refers to the ability to read. 3 A student who is doing a doctorate is an undergraduate. 4 Excelling is when a pupil uses frightening or threatening behaviour towards another child who is smaller or less powerful in some way. 5 Tertiary education is the stage that follows primary education. 6 Comprehensive schools choose the best students to study there. 7 Guidelines list schools from good to bad according to their exam results. 2.4 Complete each sentence with a word from the opposite page. because of his excellent academic record. 1 Matt won a 2 Zara’s parents said that starting a rock band with her friends would be too much of a from her studies. 3 The report contains some interesting on how best to prepare for exams. 4 There were two students in my class at university, but most of us were just 19. 5 Katia wouldn’t have been able to go to university if her grandparents hadn’t paid her tuition for her. 6 Most undergraduates need to take out a student to cover their costs while they study for a degree. 7 Primary schools usually spend a lot of time on the Rs. 8 At university I was lucky enough to have a lot of tutorials, just me and the tutor! English Vocabulary in Use Advanced 11 3 Applying for a job A A job ad 1 FDR BANK Careers Branches About Us Contact Customer Service Assistant Do you have excellent communication skills and a genuine passion for1 customer service? Are you looking for a challenging2 role within a fast-paced3 working environment? FDR Bank has several new openings4 for Customer Service Assistants. Reporting to5 the Customer Service Manager, you will be responsible for dealing with customer enquiries on the phone and via email. No previous experience6 is necessary as full training7 will be given. The post8 offers excellent career prospects9 to candidates who demonstrate leadership qualities10 as we are keen to promote and develop talent within the company. We offer a competitive salary11 and an attractive beneﬁts package12 including pension, healthcare plan and subsidised13 meals. If this sounds like the job for you, then click here to ﬁll in the online application form, including details of your salary expectations. B if you have a passion for something, you like it very much 2 a positive word for something which is exciting and difficult 3 if an environment is fast-paced, things happen quickly there 4 available jobs 5 if you report to someone, he/she is your boss 6 experience of this type of job from before 7 all the training you need 8 job 9 opportunities for promotion and career development 10 the ability to lead a group 11 as good as, or better than, other salaries for similar jobs 12 all the extra benefits that a company offers (as well as a salary) 13 partly paid for by the company A cover letter You want your application to stand out [be better than others], so you should include a clear, well-written cover letter1 which highlights key points from your CV. Here is a letter sent with the application for the job in A above. Dear Sir or Madam2 Mention any studies or training courses you have done which are relevant to [connected to] the role. If you have previous managerial experience, you can say ‘In my previous role as (Sales Manager), I led a team of (four people).’ Please find attached my CV in support of my application for the position of Customer Service Assistant. I have just completed my degree in Business Studies and am keen to gain hands-on3 experience in this area. During my course I chose to study several modules on banking and finance, as I have always been interested in working in this field4. In addition, I have worked as a parttime sales assistant in a large department store for the last two years. This has given me valuable customer-facing5 experience, as well as developing good communication skills both with customers and the rest of the team. I am a team player6 and I am keen to develop my career and gain managerial experience7 in the future. Thank you for taking the time to consider this application and I look forward to hearing from you. Yours faithfully8 Rebecca White 12 English Vocabulary in Use Advanced Be sure to specify the job you are applying for at the beginning of the letter. It is important to mention any relevant experience you have, to show your suitability for the role. If you can, provide examples of specific projects you have carried out. [done] 1 a letter sent with a job application (also called a covering letter) 2 how you start a letter when you do not know the name of the person you are writing to 3 practical, direct (not theoretical) 4 area of business or activity 5 dealing directly with customers 6 a person who is good at working with others 7 experience of managing other people 8 how you finish a letter when you do not know the name of the person you are writing to Exercises 3.1 Match the two parts of these business collocations from A and B. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3.2 a b c d e f g h i j faithfully prospects plan a team application role letter player skills salary Replace the underlined words with a word or phrase from A or B with a similar meaning. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3.3 healthcare team Yours competitive challenging communication online lead career cover You don’t need to have done this job before. As part of my new job, I get meals partly paid for by the company. It’s really important to make your application look different from all the others. Working in the factory over the summer gave me some direct experience of manufacturing. I’m hoping to work in the area of automotive manufacturing. Prism Consulting has a number of positions available for graduates. The ad said the company will provide all the training you need. You should only apply for the job if you have led a team before. The salary isn’t great, but they offer an attractive set of other advantages. Look at A and B. Fill the gaps in these sentences, using a word from the box and a suitable preposition. carried passion relevant reported role suitable support 1 2 3 4 5 I am sending my CV in my application for the position of sales team leader. I have a sales. Jakob’s experience is more the job than Sylvana’s. In my previous Sales Representative, I the Sales Manager. While working as a Customer Service Assistant, I also some research projects for the marketing department. 6 He only has 6 months’ experience as a trainee. I don’t think that makes him the job of quality manager. 3.4 Answer these questions. 1 2 3 4 5 3.5 What do we call a job which deals directly with the customers? How can we describe someone who works well with other people? How should you start a letter to someone whose name you don’t know? What four other words can be used instead of ‘job’ in an advertisement? How can we describe a working environment which is busy and rapidly changing? Over to you Find a job ad that you are interested in and write an example cover letter in English. English Vocabulary in Use Advanced 13 4 Job interviews A Preparing for interviews When companies are recruiting1, they often have a set of criteria2 (e.g. three years of experience in the field, or a degree in a relevant area) which they use to find the most suitable candidates. If you are shortlisted3 for an interview, make sure you do your homework first: find out as much as you can about the company, its products, markets, competitors, etc. If you can, ask a friend to do a trial run4 with you. This will help boost5 your confidence. The interview may be conducted by a panel [a group of people], probably including your future line manager6. Don’t forget to make eye contact with all the interviewers while you are talking. As you arrive for the interview, body language7 is important. Give a firm handshake and speak up8. This will help to create a good first impression. 1 hiring (new staff) 2 requirements you use to make a decision 3 selected from a larger group 4 a practice of something new 5 improve or increase 6 the person who is directly responsible for your work 7 physical movements which show how you are feeling 8 speak (more) loudly and clearly B During an interview These are examples of things that might be said at a job interview. A: So, can you talk us through1 your CV? B: Well, I studied Engineering and then took a job as a trainee2 at F3 Telecom. A: I’d like to ask about opportunities for professional development3. B: We have a very good in-house4 training programme for new recruits5. Can you give us an example of how you’ve worked well under pressure? How would your colleagues / your supervisor6 describe you? I’m keen to take on7 more responsibility. A: We’re looking to fill the post8 fairly quickly. If you are successful, how soon could you start? B: The notice period9 on my present job is just two weeks, so I could start very soon. C 1 tell us about in more detail 2 a person who is learning a new job 3 training given to employees to increase their knowledge or skills 4 within the company 5 people who have just joined (the company) 6 the person who checks your work 7 start to have 8 find someone to do the job 9 time you need to work in your job after you have officially told the company you are leaving A job offer Reply Forward Dear Mr Malton, Thank you for attending the interview last week. We very much enjoyed meeting you. We are delighted to offer you the position of Trainee Programmer. We believe your qualifications and experience will be an ideal fit for1 the job. Please review the attached document outlining2 your salary, benefits (including paid leave3) and reporting structure4, and sign where indicated. Return the document within five business days. Once we have received the paperwork, we will contact you to arrange your start date. We look forward to welcoming you as part of our team. Kind regards Melanie Stephens 14 1 very suitable for 3 time off you are paid for, such as holiday or parental leave 2 giving an overview of 4 company structure and who you report to English Vocabulary in Use Advanced Exercises 4.1 Look at A and fill in the tips for a successful interview. 1 Before the interview, your : find out as much as you can about the company and prepare answers to common interview questions. 2 If you can, do a to practise how you will answer the interview questions. 3 You need to create a good with the interviewers. Dress smartly and professionally. 4 Remember that your also plays an important part. Don’t forget to smile! This will make you seem more friendly, and might actually your confidence too. 5 Make sure you greet your interviewer with a . Make when you talk to them – look at them directly. 6 During the interview, describe all your relevant education and experience to show how you fulfil all the for the job. 4.2 Choose the correct word from A and B to complete the sentences. 1 2 3 4 I’m afraid you’ll have to speak up / eye up / head up. I can hardly hear what you’re saying. We are taking / recruiting / searching people for our new branch in the city centre. If we can’t fill / fulfil / supply the post internally, we’ll have to advertise externally. If I get the new job, I will have to take up / over / on more responsibility, but I will get a salary increase. 5 I don’t like working under pressure / under stress / by force. I end up making mistakes. 6 As part of the programme of reporting structure / professional development / notice period, we would like to invite you to a session on project management. 4.3 Rewrite the following sentences using expressions from A, B and C. 1 2 3 4 5 4.4 Look at B and C opposite. There is one mistake in each of these sentences. Correct the mistakes. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4.5 Could you tell us about your previous experience in this field? I think we should give the job to Ruth. She seems perfectly suited to the team. Employees are entitled to 30 days’ holiday. The group of interviewers will include your future line manager. They just called me to say I have been chosen (as one of the best candidates) for an interview. Please find attached a document overviewing your working conditions. In some companies the leaving period can be as much as six months. I’m going to be working as a superior, in charge of a team of 4 people. The company doesn’t do any in-office training. It’s all done externally. My begin date for the new job is 1 July. I’m a trainer accountant. I haven’t passed my qualifying exams yet. Over to you • • • • What do you do before a stressful situation to boost your confidence? Would you rather have a lot of paid leave or a higher salary? Do you work better under pressure? Or do you prefer to have more time? Do you enjoy taking on extra responsibility? Or do you find it stressful? English Vocabulary in Use Advanced 15 5 At work: colleagues and routines A Colleagues Philip is my opposite number1 in the company’s New York office. We have a good working relationship2 and there’s a lot of day-today collaboration3. Having a 4 counterpart like Philip in another branch is a great support. Last month we got a new boss, who quickly established a good rapport5 with everyone. She likes us to take the initiative6. The company is very hierarchical7; there’s a pecking order8 for everything. I do a job-share9 with a woman called Rose, which suits us as we each have childcare responsibilities. My office uses a hot-desking10 system, so I sit in a different place every day. I socialise with my workmates11 outside of work, but we try not to talk shop12 on those occasions. B During the day (different work patterns) 1 has the same position / does the same job as me way of communicating and working together 3 working together to achieve shared goals 4 more formal equivalent of opposite number 5 /ræˈpɔː/ communication/relationship 6 make decisions without being told what to do 7 /ˌhaɪəˈrɑːkɪkəl/ has a structure with important and less important people 8 a system where some people have the right to get benefits/promotions before others 9 an agreement where two people each share the same job 10 a policy of sharing desks in an office, so people sit at whichever desk is free on a particular day 11 colleagues you are friendly with (especially in non-professional occupations); informal 12 talk about work; informal 2 I do fairly mundane1 tasks. Occasionally I have to meet a deadline2 or they need someone to volunteer3 for something. Then the job is more rewarding4 and stimulating5. Sometimes I have a heavy workload6 but at other times it can be quite light. 1 2 3 ordinary, not interesting have something finished by a fixed day or time offer to do something without 4 being asked or told to do it making you feel satisfied that you have done something important or useful, or 6 done something well 5 encouraging new ideas or new thinking amount of work I have to do I start work at my machine at seven o’clock when I’m on the day shift. The job’s mechanical1 and repetitive2. All I ever think about is knocking off3 at three o’clock. The shift I hate most is the night shift. I start at ten and work till six in the morning. It’s a bit monotonous4. It’s not a satisfying5 job – I feel I need something a bit more challenging6. 1 2 you don’t have to think about what you are doing the same thing is repeated every day 4 5 finishing work; informal boring because it never changes (does not) make me feel pleased 6 by providing what I need or want that tests my ability or determination 3 I have a pretty glamorous1 job. I’m a pilot. But the hours are irregular and anti-social2. I’m not stuck behind a desk3, but long-haul flights can be a bit mind-numbing4; most of the time the plane just flies itself. We work to very tight schedules5. But I shouldn’t complain. I feel sorry for people who are stuck in a rut6 or who are in dead-end7 jobs. 1 2 very exciting, which everyone admires do not enable one to have a normal social life 4 desk all day; informal extremely boring 5 very strict or severely limited timetables 6 7 stuck/trapped in a job they can’t escape from with no prospects of promotion 3 sitting at a I started off as a technician1. After retraining, I worked for a software company, and later I went in with2 a friend and we formed our own software company as a start-up3 in 2009, so now I’m self-employed. My husband is freelance4: he works for several different companies as and when they need work done – he’s a computer programmer5. 1 person whose job involves practical work with scientific or electrical equipment 4 partnership with 3 a small business that has just started or works freelance computer programs 16 English Vocabulary in Use Advanced 2 formed a business someone who writes 5 Exercises 5.1 Correct seven mistakes in this paragraph. | REAL WORKERS, REAL STORIES more stories about I’m a tecnician in a factory. I think I have a good work relationship with my colleagues. I tried to establish a good report with them from the very beginning. The person I like most is my opposite member in our office in Paris. My boss likes me to make the initiative. Generally, when I socialise with my jobmates outside of work, we try not to talk about shop, but it’s not easy and sometimes we have a good gossip about colleagues and events at work. 5.2 Match the left and right-hand columns to make pairs of sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5.3 We often work together. The firm’s rather hierarchical. Peter’s my counterpart. We work to a tight schedule. I don’t think I’ll be promoted before her. Jess and I work half-and-half. a b c d e f There are several levels of management. Deadlines have to be met. It’s a job-share. Collaboration is a good thing. We do the same job but he’s based in Rome. There’s a strict pecking order in the company. Use words and phrases from the opposite page to complete these sentences. her and we 1 A good friend suggested we set up a small company together, so I formed a in 2012. 2 I’m really tired; I’ve had a very heavy recently. 3 I don’t want an office job. I don’t want to spend all day stuck . 4 I’d hate to feel trapped in my job and to be stuck in . 5 I work for different companies at different times as it suits me. I’m . 6 I used to work for someone else, but now I’m my own boss; I’m . 7 I stopped working in the hamburger restaurant. It was such a dead . 8 When I was working in the factory, all I could think of all day was the moment when I could knock . 9 Being a hospital nurse is a good job, but you can’t go out much with friends. The hours are a bit . (two possible answers) 10 I find annoying, because it means I don't have my own desk where I can keep things at work. 5.4 Choose adjectives from the box to describe the jobs below. You can use more than one for each job. Add other adjectives of your own. glamorous mundane 1 2 3 4 5 5.5 stimulating challenging repetitive stressful monotonous mind-numbing rewarding assembly-line worker in a car factory supermarket shelf stacker public relations officer in a multinational company bodyguard to a celebrity surgeon 6 7 8 9 10 varied mechanical lifeguard on a beach receptionist at a dentist’s private detective refuse collector in a city night-security guard Over to you Write down words from this unit that relate to your job, or to a job you would like to do in the future. English Vocabulary in Use Advanced 17 6 At work: job satisfaction A Aspects of job satisfaction What does job satisfaction mean? [a feeling that your job is worth doing and fulfils you] Is it just having a pleasant workplace or is it more than that? [the place where you work] Can a run-ofthe-mill job be satisfying? [ordinary, not special or exciting] Some people are prepared to put up with a stressful or unpleasant job if it means short-term financial reward. [immediate; opp. = long-term] [money gained] Staff morale has been very low since the company announced a freeze on pay rises. [amount of confidence felt by a person or group] Our new manager is very keen to encourage teamwork to help us solve problems. [working together for a common purpose] Is job stability more motivating than an exciting, high-risk career? [not likely to change] After working in the fast-moving fashion industry for six years, Sam has decided to look for a career with a better work–life balance. [developing or changing very quickly] [the amount of time spent working compared to the amount of time spent doing things you enjoy] Daniel’s job in a dynamic new company is often challenging but exciting. [continuously developing] Chloe is demotivated in her current job following recent changes in the finance sector. [feeling less enthusiastic about work] She is looking to work in / seeking a career in something more creative, like marketing. Language help The text has some words with similar meanings connected to work. It is a good idea to learn them in pairs, e.g. fast-moving and dynamic (industry/profession), seeking a career in … and looking to work in … . (Note: we say look to, meaning consider or plan, NOT look for.) B Expressions connected with working life In many countries, women are allowed maternity leave, and men paternity leave, if they’re having a baby. If they adopt a child, they may have a right to adoption leave. [time away from work to prepare for and look after a new baby / adopted child] What perks (informal) / (extra) benefits (formal) do you get in your job? [extra things apart from salary, e.g. a car, health insurance] What’s your holiday entitlement? I get four weeks a year. [number of days you have the right to take as holiday] Do you get regular salary increments each year? [increases/rises; formal] Do you get performance-related pay rises? [depending on how well you do your job] Do you get an annual bonus? [extra money paid once a year, usually based on good performance] Most people think they are overworked and underpaid. (often said together as an informal, humorous fixed expression) Because of the recession, the company announced that there would have to be voluntary/ compulsory redundancies. [people losing their jobs, by offering to do so / having no choice] During the strike, the airport managed to continue running with a skeleton staff of volunteers. [the minimum number of workers needed to keep operating] The people on the interview panel at the last job I applied for were so unfriendly that I got very nervous. [the group of people interviewing someone for a job] 18 English Vocabulary in Use Advanced Exercises 6.1 Rewrite these sentences by using words and phrases from the opposite page instead of the underlined words. 1 2 3 4 6.2 Find expressions on the opposite page which mean the opposite of the underlined words or phrases. 1 2 3 4 5 6.3 Do you enjoy working as part of a team? I don’t think that earning a lot of money is the key to job satisfaction. Would you feel nervous giving a presentation to a group of people at interview? Sales staff are often paid extra money each year when they perform well. a very unusual, exciting job a person who is highly motivated a rather static and slow-moving profession a drop in salary compulsory redundancy 6 a full staff of workers 7 someone who has a light workload and is paid a lot 8 an automatic pay rise each year Choose the best word or phrase to complete each sentence. 1 Rafael has done the same job for the last fifteen years and his job will be secure until he retires. For Rafael, job stability / job satisfaction is very important. 2 Kate has a good workplace / work–life balance. She never works late and she often finds time to relax with her family or go to the cinema in the evening. 3 After graduating from Manchester University, Dan started work in the run-of-the-mill / fast-moving film industry. 4 Amy joined the law firm for the bonus / long-term career prospects they offered. It would be hard work for the first few years, but she could later become a senior partner. 6.4 Each sentence in these pairs of sentences contains a mistake. Correct them. 1 She was on mother leave for three months after the birth of her baby. Then her husband took father leave for three months. 2 Sarah has been on adapted leave since she and Brian welcomed their new two-year old child into their family. Brian took volunteer redundancy from his job, which means he is at home too. 3 My holiday titlement is four weeks a year. The atmosphere in my place for work is very pleasant, so I’m happy. 4 When I applied for the job, I was looking for join a dynamic team. However, the interview jury gave an impression of complete boredom and lack of interest. 5 The factory had to operate with a skeletal staff during the economic crisis. There had been a large number of compulsive redundancies. 6 I get some good parks in my new job. I get a company car and free health security. 6.5 Over to you • What does job satisfaction mean to you? • Do you think financial reward is more important than job stability or work–life balance? English Vocabulary in Use Advanced 19 7 At work: careers A A career in sales When Carl left school, he took the first job he was offered – in telesales1. He thought telemarketing2 sounded quite glamorous but soon found that most of the people he phoned hated cold calling3 and put the phone down when he tried the hard sell4. However, he persevered and found he became quite skilled at persuading customers to part with their money5. He then moved into a job on a TV shopping channel6, where he specialised in selling merchandise7 for the leisure market. He did so well at this that he set up his own sportswear company and hasn’t looked back8 since. + 2 selling or marketing goods and services by phone phoning people who have not requested a call in order to try to sell them something 4 attempt to sell something by being very forceful or persuasive B 1 5 3 6 spend money a TV channel devoted to selling products 7 products that are bought and sold 8 has moved forward successfully Buying and selling A person’s purchasing power is the ability they have to buy goods, i.e. the amount of money they have available. If you shop around, you try different companies or shops to see which offers best value. If you want to buy something, you need to find a shop that stocks it. [keeps a supply of it = keeps it in stock] If you trade something up, usually a car or a house, you buy one that is of higher value than the one you had before. (opp. = trade down) People sometimes make a purchasing decision based on brand loyalty. [confidence in that particular make and a tendency always to choose it] Supermarkets sometimes sell an item for less than it costs them in order to attract a lot of people into the shop, where they will also buy more profitable items – the item being sold at a low price is called a loss leader. For a company to sell its products, it has to price them appropriately. [give them a price] If a company finds a niche market, it finds a specialised group of customers with particular interests that that company can meet. If an item is said to come/go under the hammer, it is sold at an auction. [sale of goods or property where people make gradually increasing bids and the item is then sold to the highest bidder] C A career in business A few years ago Tina started her own software development business, which turned out to be very lucrative1. However, she got increasingly irritated by all the red tape2 involved in the administration3 of a business and when a larger company contacted her with a proposition4, suggesting a takeover5, she was interested. At first, the two companies could not agree on all the details of the agreement but they managed to reach a compromise6 and hammer out a deal7 without too much delay. In many ways Tina was sad that her company had been swallowed up8 but she has used the money raised by the sale of her capital assets9 to invest in10 a business start-up11: an online holiday property letting agency12. 1 producing a lot of money bureaucracy (negative) 3 organisation and arrangement of operations 4 formal offer 5 agreement in which one company takes control of another one (compare with merger, in which two companies join together to become one company) 6 come to an agreement in which both sides reduce their demands a little 2 20 English Vocabulary in Use Advanced 7 talk in detail until a business agreement is made taken over by a larger company 9 buildings and machines owned by a company 10 put money into 11 new company 12 a business organising the rental of holiday houses and flats 8 Exercises 7.1 Match the two parts of these business collocations from the opposite page. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 7.2 loss capital purchasing shopping hard letting brand niche red a b c d e f g h i agency channel leader tape power loyalty assets sell market Look at A and B opposite. Fill the gaps in these sentences. 1 A world-famous painting will go the hammer in London tomorrow. 2 It’s a sensible idea to shop a bit before buying a computer. 3 Sally made the right decision when she quit her old job and set up her own business – she hasn’t since the day it opened. looked 4 I don’t mind trying a hard sell on a person who has already expressed an interest in our products, but I hate calling. 5 It can be quite hard to persuade my dad to with his money. 6 I’m going to make a for the dining table that is up for auction tomorrow. 7 My current job is in . I spend all the day on the phone. 8 They produce special clothes for people who practise yoga and have really cornered this market. 9 The shop I went to didn’t the printer I wanted so I’m going to order it online. 7.3 Replace the underlined words with a word or phrase from C with a similar meaning. 1 As their business interests were quite different, it took them a long time to come to an agreement. 2 If you want to go into the import and export business, you had better be prepared for a lot of bureaucracy. 3 At the moment they are discussing the possibility of buying up another company. 4 Sportswear is a very profitable business to be in at the moment. 5 Banks will only lend a new business money if they have a realistic business plan. 6 A number of small companies have been taken over by that huge multinational in the last six months. 7 Hassan has made a rather interesting suggestion about setting up a business together. 8 Chloe is much better at the creative side of business than the organisation involved in running a company. 7.4 Choose the best word to complete each sentence. 1 I hope we’ll be able to keep / reach a compromise when we meet tomorrow. 2 I think those new games consoles are priced / purchased too high at the moment. 3 The shops are hoping to sell a lot of capital assets / merchandise connected with the royal wedding. 4 My sports car was so expensive to run that I decided to trade it down / up for something much cheaper. 5 Helga has never looked back / out since she started her own business ten years ago. 6 There’s a lot of loss leader / red tape involved in setting up a new business. English Vocabulary in Use Advanced 21 Describing people: positive and negative qualities 8 A Character and personality Chinese astrology organises years into cycles of 12, and asserts that the year you are born in affects your character. Each year is named after an animal. 1 animal year characteristics RAT 1972, 1984, 1996, 2008 imaginative, charming, generous, quicktempered, opportunistic1 1973, 1985, 1997, 2009 conservative, methodical2, conscientious, chauvinistic3, a born leader 1974, 1986, 1998, 2010 sensitive, emotional, tends to get carried away4, stubborn, rebellious, courageous RABBIT 1975, 1987, 1999, 2011 affectionate, obliging5, sentimental, superficial6, often insecure7 DRAGON 1976, 1988, 2000, 2012 fun-loving, popular, a perfectionist8, gifted, may sometimes be tactless9 SNAKE 1977, 1989, 2001, 2013 charming, intuitive10, stingy HORSE 1978, 1990, 2002, 2014 diligent11, independent, placid12, outgoing, can be selfish and cunning GOAT 1979, 1991, 2003, 2015 elegant, artistic, always ready to complain, over-anxious MONKEY 1980, 1992, 2004, 2016 witty, magnetic personality13, good company, can be distrustful14 ROOSTER 1981, 1993, 2005, 2017 industrious, shrewd15, supportive16, decisive, extravagant17 DOG 1982, 1994, 2006, 2018 down-to-earth18, altruistic19, morose20, sharp-tongued21 1983, 1995, 2007, 2019 intellectual, tolerant, naive22, often materialistic BUFFALO TIGER PIG B using situations for own benefit systematic, careful 3 too patriotic 4 become too excited and lose control 5 ready to help 6 not caring about serious things 7 not confident, uncertain about your own abilities 8 someone who is not satisfied if things are not 100% perfect 9 inclined to say things that upset or offend people 10 understanding instinctively 11 hard-working 12 calm, does not easily become excited or angry 13 personality that attracts people to you 14 not trusting, suspicious of others 15 having good judgement 16 gives help or encouragement 17 spends too much money or uses too much of something 18 practical and sensible 19 thinking of others rather than yourself 20 gloomy 21 inclined to speak in a severe and critical way 22 without enough experience of life, trusting too easily 2 Positive and negative associations Charming, generous – is that how you think of yourself? Selfish, cunning – that can’t be me! Some words in the chart above have positive associations, others negative ones. Here are some words from the chart, together with other words that share some aspects of their meaning. The table shows which have positive and which have negative associations. 22 positive negative positive negative generous, unstinting extravagant, immoderate shrewd, astute cunning, sly resolute, dogged stubborn, obstinate sober, serious morose, sullen thrifty, frugal stingy, parsimonious witty, pithy brusque, terse diligent, industrious work-obsessed, (a) workaholic (noun) tolerant, open-minded unprincipled, unscrupulous idealistic, principled dogmatic, inflexible chatty, talkative verbose, garrulous English Vocabulary in Use Advanced Exercises 8.1 Read the comments and then answer the questions. I wish Tatyana would calm down and not get so overexcited about things. Alice can always be relied upon to make the right decision. Sophie is always so calm. Harry is such a practical and sensible person. Andrey has a tendency to say things that upset people. 1 Who is placid? 2 Who is down-to-earth? 8.2 Tom thinks his country is better than any other country and doesn’t listen to reason. 3 Who tends to get carried away? 4 Who is often tactless? 5 Who is shrewd? 6 Who is chauvinistic? Which colleagues does the speaker have a positive opinion of and which a negative one? ‘Ellie, my boss, is very astute and she can be very witty, but I find her assistant, David, a bit sullen and obstinate. Julia, who I sit next to, is a bit stingy and extremely work-obsessed. I do a lot of work with Marco, who’s very obliging, supportive and tolerant.’ 8.3 Fill the gaps with words from the opposite page. You are given the first letter(s) and clues to the meaning in brackets. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 He’s rather o . He always tries to use situations to his own advantage. (devious) She has an i approach to life rather than a rational one. (instinctive) My father was a somewhat quick-tempered and m sort of person. (gloomy) He was a very altruistic person, almost to the point of being n . (too trusting) Aisha has a m personality. Everyone is drawn to her. (attractive) Rob is a very conscientious and m worker. (careful, systematic) I find Eva a bit b and rude. (speaks in a quick and rude way) She’s fun-loving but she can be a bit s at times. (doesn’t care about serious things) I think Max is i . (doesn’t have much confidence, not really sure of himself) I’m always happy to go out for a meal with Kerstin. She’s such g c . (pleasant and entertaining to spend time with) 11 She was very c in speaking out against corruption. (brave, unafraid to speak or act) 12 Owen’s a p . He’s never happy if he doesn’t get an A-grade in every test. 8.4 Find adjectives on the opposite page related to these abstract nouns. 1 altruism 2 parsimony 3 diligence 8.5 8.6 4 placidity 5 industriousness 6 rebellion 7 distrust 8 terseness 9 naivety 10 unscrupulousness The adjectives you found in the exercise above are more common in formal contexts. Give a synonym for each word that would be more likely to be used in informal situations (e.g. a friendly, informal conversation). Use a dictionary if necessary. Over to you Which adjectives from this unit could you use to describe you, your friends and your family members? English Vocabulary in Use Advanced 23 Describing people: appearance and mannerisms 9 A Adjectives connected with size, weight and general appearance She introduced me to a tall, slender woman who looked very serious. [thin in an attractive way] He was too scrawny to be a football player. [unattractively thin and bony-looking] A lanky teenager walked in. [very tall and thin, and usually moving awkwardly] A gangling/gangly youth approached him. [tall, with long, thin arms and legs and rather awkward movements; often used of men and boys] Recent studies show that an increasing number of children are obese. [very fat, in an unhealthy way] She’s the rather stout woman wearing glasses over there. [with a quite large, solid body; used of men and women] My grandfather was a stocky man with big hands and broad shoulders. [short and with a body that is wide across the shoulders and chest] B Aspects of appearance and complexion Reply Forward Hi Jessica, Guess who I bumped into the other day? Our old college mate, Rob Parsons! First thing I noticed was he’s really bulked up1 (he used to be so lean2 and wiry 3, didn’t he?) but also that he still looks so unkempt4. His sister was always the opposite – never a hair out of place5 and immaculate6 clothes, remember? But they were different in appearance too, weren’t they? He has a rather swarthy7 complexion: his sister’s was more sallow8. I must say he looked a bit haggard9 and exhausted too. He’s probably working too hard. Anyway, how are things with you? Beth 1 increased in body size, especially by gaining more muscle 2 thin and healthy 3 thin but strong 4 untidy, scruffy (the opposite would be smart or neat; ‘kempt’ does not exist) C 5 always well-dressed, neat and smart-looking in perfect condition, smart 7 dark-coloured, used about skin 8 yellowish 9 his face looked ill and tired 6 Facial expression A: What are you grinning at? [giving a big smile] B: You’ve got ice cream on your nose – it looks so funny! Look at those models pouting for the photographers! [positioning their lips in an attractive way] She said if her daughter doesn’t get what she wants, she pouts for the rest of the day. [positions her lips in a look of annoyance] You don’t have to grimace every time I eat raw garlic. I happen to think it’s delicious. [make an expression of pain or strong dislike] I arrived late and she just scowled at me. [gave a bad-tempered, angry look] He was leering at us. I felt very uncomfortable and wanted to leave. [looking in an unpleasant, sexually interested way] D Mannerisms and actions I asked him for advice but he just shrugged his shoulders. [lifted his shoulders up and down to show he didn’t know or couldn’t answer] He folded his arms and crossed his legs and waited for me to speak. [crossed one arm over the other close to his body] [crossed one leg over the other while sitting] He sat there twitching nervously as he waited for his interview. [suddenly making small movements] She bites her nails all the time. It drives me crazy! She clenched her fist and told him to get out of the room at once. [closed her hand tightly because of anger] He just kept tapping/drumming his fingers on the table, looking impatient. [made quick, light hitting movements] 24 English Vocabulary in Use Advanced Exercises 9.1 Rewrite these sentences using words from A opposite instead of the underlined words. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9.2 She looks as if she needs a good meal; her body is so thin and bony. Martha and David are both rather tall and thin individuals. Being extremely fat can have health risks. A very tall, thin, bony, awkward-looking boy carried our bags for us. Her new silk dress suited her thin frame. A short man with broad shoulders offered to lift the stone so we could look underneath. That solid-looking woman on the left of the photo is Charlie’s wife. Fill in the gaps in the sentences using words from B opposite. 1 Finn looked really after two weeks of camping – his clothes were dirty and his hair was a mess! 2 Leah always looks amazing – she never has a out of place! 3 Alex has a lot – must be all that time he spends at the gym lifting weights! 4 Dan hasn’t slept for three days – he looks really tired and ! 9.3 What are these people doing? 1 4 9.4 He’s folding his arms. 2 3 5 6 Answer these questions. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The verb to pout has two meanings on the opposite page. What are they? If someone scowls at you, how are they probably feeling? What is the difference between a swarthy complexion and a sallow complexion? When would you clench your fist? When do people normally shrug their shoulders? What might you do with your fingers on a table if you were nervous or impatient? In what situations do people typically (a) fold their arms, (b) cross their legs? If someone is ‘lean and wiry’, which of these adjectives are true of them: thin, fat, healthy, weak, ill-looking, strong? English Vocabulary in Use Advanced 25 Describing people: personality and character traits 10 A B Adjectives to describe people’s personality or behaviour word meaning example impetuous acts on a sudden idea without thinking first (often negative) She’s so impetuous; I wish she would consider things before acting. impulsive similar to impetuous, but can be used in a more positive way His impulsive generosity led him to give money to anyone who asked for help. effusive gives exaggerated expression of pleasure, praise or gratitude She always gives me such an effusive welcome when I visit her. excitable easily excited by things He’s a very excitable child; he needs to calm down. pushy always selfishly promoting your own position or interests; informal She’s so pushy; it’s typical of her to demand a pay rise for herself and not care about the rest of us. self-conscious nervous or uncomfortable because you know what people think about you or your actions Freddie seemed self-conscious and uncomfortable when he had to make the announcement at the party. well-balanced calm and reasonable and showing good judgement The teacher said Maddy was a well-balanced child who got on well at school. taciturn /ˈtæsɪtɜːn/ reserved or says very little (generally negative) He was a bit taciturn when I first met him. He hardly said a word. Sociability Chloe’s such an introvert. Her brother Mark is so outgoing and is such an extrovert. Strange, isn’t it? [inward-looking and quiet] [energetic and friendly, finds it easy to be with others] [outward-looking, energetic and sociable] Mr Rogers is such a diffident man. He seems to have quite low self-esteem. [lacks confidence] [has a low opinion of himself] English people are traditionally thought of as rather reserved. [not immediately sociable] Eva tends to be rather aloof. I don’t know if she’s just shy. [unfriendly and not sociable] My aunt Annie can be very haughty and disdainful at times, but she’s lovely really. [unfriendly and thinks herself better than others] [does not believe others deserve respect] I’ve always found Professor Mactoft very unapproachable, but his colleague Dr O’Daly is very approachable. [not easy to be sociable with or start a conversation with] [the opposite] Natasha is very conceited and self-important, but Rachel is such a modest person. [thinks herself wonderful] [has an exaggerated sense of her importance] [prefers not to exaggerate her own qualities] Joe is always so polite and respectful. I wish he would be more informal and just treat me as his equal. [treating someone well and politely, often with admiration] C Character traits Arjen is a somewhat naive person; he thinks love can solve all the world’s problems. [/naɪˈiːv/ willing to believe simple things, perhaps because of inexperience] Telephone salespeople often take advantage of gullible people. [easily deceived] My father was a very conscientious man; he never took time off work unless he was really sick. [/ˌkɒntʃiˈentʃəs/ always took his work very seriously] She’s a restless individual. I don’t think she’ll ever settle down in a job. [not satisfied with what she is doing now and wanting something new] You are so obstinate and pig-headed! Why don’t you listen when people give you advice? [unwilling to change, despite persuasion] [similar to obstinate but stronger; informal] 26 English Vocabulary in Use Advanced Exercises 10.1 Answer these questions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10.2 Why would people rather have an approachable teacher or boss than an unapproachable one? What is a stronger and less formal way of saying obstinate? If someone is diffident, do they have little or lots of self-confidence? How could you describe a greeting from someone that showed exaggerated pleasure? Do you think it would be easy or difficult to have a friendly conversation with a taciturn person? Which tends to be more negative, impetuous or impulsive? Which would most people rather be described as, conscientious or self-conscious? If you’re outgoing, are you more likely to be seen as an introvert or an extrovert? Rewrite the underlined parts of the sentences using the words in the box, making any other changes necessary. restless well-balanced pushy outgoing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10.3 aloof conceited haughty self-esteem Complete the table. Some of the words are not on the opposite page. noun excitable adjective noun reserved gullible diffidence disdain pig-headed impetuous respect obstinate self-important approachable modest These sentences contain words from the table in 10.3. Rewrite the sentences using the other form of the word. For example, use a noun instead of an adjective and vice versa. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10.5 naive Don’t be so over-proud of your achievements! You’re not the only one to get an A-grade! People who have a poor opinion of themselves can find it difficult to achieve their goals. He’s generally a happy, sociable sort of person. She is a person who is generally quite reasonable and who shows good judgement overall. You always seem unable to settle down. What’s the problem? He’s so easily excited. He should try to calm down more. She believes rather simple things when it comes to politics. He’s just pursuing his own interests and cares little what happens to others. Frances was very unfriendly and would not take part in things at the party. At times, Joel is quite cold and unfriendly and acts as if he’s better than the rest of us. adjective 10.4 excitable One of her main character traits is that she is impetuous. It’s difficult to get him to change his ways. He displays a high level of obstinacy. Luke shows a lot of reserve, but his wife is known more for her approachability. One of her nicest characteristics is that she is modest. She shows a lot of respect for her elders. It’s important in her culture. Being pig-headed seems to be a family trait among my relatives. She is so full of self-importance; it irritates everyone. Online identity thieves prey on people being gullible. Over to you Choose five words from the opposite page that you feel describe you. Be honest! English Vocabulary in Use Advanced 27 11 Relationships: friends forever A Love and romance When Tom met Lily, it was love at first sight. [love began the first time they saw each other] She fell head over heels in love with him. [fell deeply and madly in love] Nick only has eyes for Sophie. He’s not interested in other girls. [is only attracted to] Lauren was more than infatuated with Dave; she was completely besotted with him. [romantically obsessed with] [almost stupidly or blindly in love with] I’ve often seen Matt and Ellie at the cinema together, but it’s purely a platonic relationship. [affectionate relationship between people of the opposite sex that is not sexual] B Friendships and other positive relationships Anona and I hit it off immediately; we’re true soulmates. [liked each other the moment we met] [people who feel close in spirit and understand each other deeply] The moment I met Rob, I could see he was a man after my own heart. [someone you admire because they do or think the same as you; also woman after your own heart] Charlie and I get on like a house on fire. [have a very good, enjoyable relationship] Rob and Jamie have been bosom friends/buddies/pals for years. [very close, good friends] Marta and Carmen are inseparable. [always want to be together, very close] There’s a close bond between Rushda and her aunt. [relationship or feeling of togetherness] C General social relationships: collocations The replies in these conversations are another way of saying what the first speaker says. A: You seem to be very similar to Ben – the way you think and look at life. B: Yes, we’ve always been kindred spirits. A: What a nice wedding! Nathan and Amelia seem to be perfect for each other. B: Yes, such a well-matched couple! A: Our Spanish friends are always phoning their brothers and sisters. B: Yes, well, I think family ties in Spain are much stronger than here. A: I’ve never met Rosie, but I know several people she knows. B: Yes, she said you have a number of mutual acquaintances. A: Gareth has a lot of respect for Clare. B: Yes, he holds her in high regard. A: Sarah and Anna are very close these days. I’m sure they share all their secrets. B: Yes, they’re as thick as thieves. D 28 Nouns and adjectives adjective noun example adoring adoration The parents gazed at their new-born baby with a look of tender adoration. affectionate affection He never shows much affection for his children. amiable amiability She always treats us with great amiability. considerate consideration ‘Have some consideration for the other students!’ she said angrily. faithful faithfulness Faithfulness is the key to a good marriage. fond fondness Over the years she developed a fondness for Mario that went beyond a purely business relationship. loyal loyalty He was a great team captain who inspired loyalty in the players. English Vocabulary in Use Advanced Exercises 11.1 Match up the words on the left with words on the right to make expressions. Then use the expressions to complete the sentences below. 1 love 2 head 3 bosom 1 2 3 4 5 6 11.2 4 hit 5 kindred 6 mutual When Josh met Emma, it was . Phil and Toby look at life in the same way. They’re Ever since they worked together, Lucy and Olivia have been I was introduced to Zoe by some . They just looked at each other and fell . When Ross and I met, we immediately . 5 6 7 8 . Complete the table. Some of the words are not on the opposite page. adjective noun loyal respect consideration adjective affection passion romantic devoted support fond faithful amiable trust adoration infatuated Now complete these sentences, which include words from the table above, using the correct preposition. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 11.5 . Rachel only has for Mark these days. She’s crazy over him. They look such a couple. I wonder if they will get married? Tara and I have always got like a house . He’s completely with her. I’ve never known him to be so much in love before. He’s like a teenager. (two possible answers) Matt would do anything for his boss – he holds her in very high . I think she was quite right to say what she did – she’s a woman after my own . The children must be planning something – they look as as thieves. They spend most of their holidays in the south of Italy because of their ties there. noun 11.4 d spirits e at first sight f over heels in love Fill the gaps in these sentences. 1 2 3 4 11.3 a pals b it off c acquaintances She’s absolutely devoted her mother and visits her every day. I’ve always had a lot of respect my boss, and I do enjoy my job a lot. She’s been so lo