ప్రధాన English Grammar in Use, Fifth Edition
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THE WORLD’S BEST-SELLING GRAMMAR BOOK ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate learners of English with answers Fifth Edition Raymond Murphy Teachercom's Library xplanations,audio and pr s of English.P oom activities. xplanations,e cises. ents,t es.onunciation ess,c at’ . orks,including individual onation. e English, s. . REDMAN 978-0-521-14989-1 ENGLISH VOCABULARY IN USE Pre-intermediate &intermediate (with answers) &CD-ROM CMYK ode and instructions inside. Be te Learnin is our sim le ap roach where deeper insights help shape richer content that drives stronger esults. Discover more: cambri cambri C C M M Y Y K K C M Y K is our sim le ap roach where Discover more: • • e.o /be e lea nin • • e.o /be e lea nin • • Hewings: Advanced Grammar in Use With answers & ebook 3rd Edition Cover Learnin drives stronger esults. 978-0-521-14989-1 with simple ‘list activities,modelled with a cle sounds,w Be te deeper insights help shape richer content that 9781107539303 9781107539303 Hewings: Hewings: Advanced Advanced Grammar Grammar in in Use Use With With answers answers & & ebook ebook 3rd 3rd Edition Edition Cover Cover 9781107539303 • • More than 35,000 deﬁnitions and hundreds of new words • Deﬁnitions are written in clear, simple English • Thesaurus boxes help you to expand your vocabulary • Common Learner Error boxes, based on learner errors from the Cambridge • Over 1,000 Word Partner boxes show the important collocations that will CD-ROM • SMART thesaurus – a dictionary and a thesaurus in one! • Spoken British and American pronunciation for every word • ‘Record yourself’ feature helps you with pronunciation practice REDMAN • ENGLISH VOCABULARY IN USE Pre-intermediate &intermediate (with answers) &CD-ROM CMYK M Y K M Y K • 9781107539303 Hewings: Advanced Grammar in Use With answers & ebook 3rd Edition Cover C • 978 1 316 63174 4 Redman: English Vocabulary in Use pre-int and int Cover C 978; 1107539303 Hewings: Advanced Grammar in Use With answers & ebook 3rd Edition Cover C M Y K Be te Learnin is our sim le ap roach where deeper insights help shape richer content that drives stronger esults. Discover more: cambri Be te Learnin e.o /be e lea nin is our sim le ap roach where insights shape content that drives esults. Discover more: cambri e.o /be e lea nin facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate learners of English with answers Fifth Edition Raymond Murphy Teachercom's Library facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib University Printing House, Cambridge CB2 8BS, United Kingdom One Liberty Plaza, 20th Floor, New York, NY 10006, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia 314–321, 3rd Floor, Plot 3, Splendor Forum, Jasola District Centre, New Delhi – 110025, India 79 Anson Road, #06-04/06, Singapore 079906 Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge. It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence. www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781108457651 © Cambridge University Press 1985, 1994, 2004, 2012, 2019 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 1985 Second edition 1994 Third edition 2004 Fourth edition 2012 Fifth edition 2019 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Printed in Malaysia by Vivar Printing A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN ISBN ISBN ISBN ISBN 978-1-108-45765-1 978-1-108-58662-7 978-1-108-45768-2 978-1-108-45771-2 978-1-108-45773-6 Student’s Book with answers Student’s Book with answers and ebook Student’s Book without answers Interactive ebook Supplementary Exercises Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter. facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib Contents Thanks vii To the student viii To the teacher x Present and past 1 Present continuous (I am doing) 2 Present simple (I do) 3 Present continuous and present simple 1 (I am doing and I do) 4 Present continuous and present simple 2 (I am doing and I do) 5 Past simple (I did) 6 Past continuous (I was doing) Present perfect and past 7 Present perfect 1 (I have done) 8 Present perfect 2 (I have done) 9 Present perfect continuous (I have been doing) 10 Present perfect continuous and simple (I have been doing and I have done) 11 how long have you (been) … ? 12 for and since when … ? and how long … ? 13 Present perfect and past 1 (I have done and I did) 14 Present perfect and past 2 (I have done and I did) 15 Past perfect (I had done) 16 Past perfect continuous (I had been doing) 17 have and have got 18 used to (do) Future 19 Present tenses (I am doing / I do) for the future 20 I’m going to (do) 21 will and shall 1 22 will and shall 2 23 I will and I’m going to 24 will be doing and will have done 25 when I do and when I’ve done if and when Modals 26 can, could and (be) able to 27 could (do) and could have (done) 28 must and can’t 29 may and might 1 30 may and might 2 31 have to and must 32 must mustn’t needn’t 33 should 1 34 should 2 35 I’d better … it’s time … 36 would 37 can/could/would you … ? etc. (Requests, offers, permission and invitations) IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326. facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib iii if and wish 38 if I do … and if I did … 39 if I knew … I wish I knew … 40 if I had known … I wish I had known … 41 wish Passive 42 Passive 1 (is done / was done) 43 Passive 2 (be done / been done / being done) 44 Passive 3 45 it is said that … he is said to … he is supposed to … 46 have something done Reported speech 47 Reported speech 1 (he said that …) 48 Reported speech 2 Questions and auxiliary verbs 49 Questions 1 50 Questions 2 (do you know where … ? / he asked me where …) 51 Auxiliary verbs (have/do/can etc.) I think so / I hope so etc. 52 Question tags (do you? isn’t it? etc.) -ing and to … 53 Verb + -ing (enjoy doing / stop doing etc.) 54 Verb + to … (decide to … / forget to … etc.) 55 Verb (+ object) + to … (I want you to …) 56 Verb + -ing or to … 1 (remember, regret etc.) 57 Verb + -ing or to … 2 (try, need, help) 58 Verb + -ing or to … 3 (like / would like etc.) 59 prefer and would rather 60 Preposition (in/for/about etc.) + -ing 61 be/get used to … (I’m used to …) 62 Verb + preposition + -ing (succeed in -ing / insist on -ing etc.) 63 there’s no point in -ing, it’s worth -ing etc. 64 to … , for … and so that … 65 Adjective + to … 66 to … (afraid to do) and preposition + -ing (afraid of -ing) 67 see somebody do and see somebody doing 68 -ing clauses (He hurt his knee playing football.) Articles and nouns 69 Countable and uncountable 1 70 Countable and uncountable 2 71 Countable nouns with a/an and some 72 a/an and the 73 the 1 74 the 2 (school / the school etc.) 75 the 3 (children / the children) 76 the 4 (the giraffe / the telephone / the old etc.) 77 Names with and without the 1 iv IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326. facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib 78 79 80 81 Names with and without the 2 Singular and plural Noun + noun (a bus driver / a headache) -’s (your sister’s name) and of … (the name of the book) Pronouns and determiners 82 myself/yourself/themselves etc. 83 a friend of mine my own house on my own / by myself 84 there … and it … 85 some and any 86 no/none/any nothing/nobody etc. 87 much, many, little, few, a lot, plenty 88 all / all of most / most of no / none of etc. 89 both / both of neither / neither of either / either of 90 all every whole 91 each and every Relative clauses 92 Relative clauses 1: clauses with who/that/which 93 Relative clauses 2: clauses with and without who/that/which 94 Relative clauses 3: whose/whom/where 95 Relative clauses 4: extra information clauses (1) 96 Relative clauses 5: extra information clauses (2) 97 -ing and -ed clauses (the woman talking to Tom, the boy injured in the accident) Adjectives and adverbs 98 Adjectives ending in -ing and -ed (boring/bored etc.) 99 Adjectives: a nice new house, you look tired 100 Adjectives and adverbs 1 (quick/quickly) 101 Adjectives and adverbs 2 (well, fast, late, hard/hardly) 102 so and such 103 enough and too 104 quite, pretty, rather and fairly 105 Comparative 1 (cheaper, more expensive etc.) 106 Comparative 2 (much better / any better etc.) 107 Comparative 3 (as … as / than) 108 Superlative (the longest, the most enjoyable etc.) 109 Word order 1: verb + object; place and time 110 Word order 2: adverbs with the verb 111 still any more yet already 112 even Conjunctions and prepositions 113 although though even though 114 in case 115 unless as long as provided 116 as (as I walked … / as I was … etc.) 117 like and as 118 like as if 119 during for while 120 by and until by the time … in spite of despite IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326. facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib v Prepositions 121 at/on/in (time) 122 on time and in time at the end and in the end 123 in/at/on (position) 1 124 in/at/on (position) 2 125 in/at/on (position) 3 126 to, at, in and into 127 in/on/at (other uses) 128 by 129 Noun + preposition (reason for, cause of etc.) 130 Adjective + preposition 1 131 Adjective + preposition 2 132 Verb + preposition 1 to and at 133 Verb + preposition 2 about/for/of/after 134 Verb + preposition 3 about and of 135 Verb + preposition 4 of/for/from/on 136 Verb + preposition 5 in/into/with/to/on Phrasal verbs 137 Phrasal verbs 1 138 Phrasal verbs 2 139 Phrasal verbs 3 140 Phrasal verbs 4 141 Phrasal verbs 5 142 Phrasal verbs 6 143 Phrasal verbs 7 144 Phrasal verbs 8 145 Phrasal verbs 9 Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Appendix 5 Appendix 6 Appendix 7 Introduction in/out out on/off (1) on/off (2) up/down up (1) up (2) away/back Regular and irregular verbs 292 Present and past tenses 294 The future 295 Modal verbs (can/could/will/would etc.) 296 Short forms (I’m / you’ve / didn’t etc.) 297 Spelling 298 American English 300 Additional exercises 302 Study guide 326 Key to Exercises 336 Key to Additional exercises Key to Study guide 372 368 Index 373 vi IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326. facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib Thanks This is the fifth edition of English Grammar in Use. I wrote the original edition when I was a teacher at the Swan School of English, Oxford. I would like to repeat my thanks to my former colleagues and students at the school for their help, encouragement and interest at that time. Regarding the production of this fifth edition, I would like to thank Rebecca Winthrop and Chris Capper. Design & Illustrations Q2A Media Services Pvt. Ltd. facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib vii To the student This book is for students who want help with English grammar. It is written for you to use without a teacher. The book will be useful for you if you are not sure of the answers to questions like these: What is the difference between I did and I have done? When do we use will for the future? What is the structure after I wish? When do we say used to do and when do we say used to doing? When do we use the? What is the difference between like and as? These and many other points of English grammar are explained in the book, and there are exercises on each point. Level The book is intended mainly for intermediate students (students who have already studied the basic grammar of English). It concentrates on those structures that intermediate students want to use, but that often cause difficulty. Some advanced students who have problems with grammar will also find the book useful. The book is not suitable for elementary learners. How the book is organised There are 145 units in the book. Each unit concentrates on a particular point of grammar. Some problems (for example, the present perfect or the use of the) are covered in more than one unit. For a list of units, see the Contents at the beginning of the book. Each unit consists of two facing pages. On the left there are explanations and examples; on the right there are exercises. At the back of the book there is an Answer Key for you to check your answers to the exercises (page 336). There are also seven Appendices at the back of the book (pages 292–301). These include irregular verbs, summaries of verb forms, spelling, and American English. Finally, there is a detailed Index at the back of the book (page 373). How to use the book The units are not in order of difficulty, so it is not intended that you work through the book from beginning to end. Every learner has different problems, and you should use this book to help you with the grammar that you find difficult. It is suggested that you work in this way: Use the Contents and/or Index to find which unit deals with the point you are interested in. If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the Study guide on page 326. Study the explanations and examples on the left-hand page of the unit you have chosen. Do the exercises on the right-hand page. Check your answers with the Key. If your answers are not correct, study the left-hand page again to see what went wrong. You can, of course, use the book simply as a reference book without doing the exercises. viii facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib Additional exercises At the back of the book there are Additional exercises (pages 302–325). These exercises bring together some of the grammar points from a number of different units. For example, Exercise 16 brings together grammar points from Units 26–36. You can use these exercises for extra practice after you have studied and practised the grammar in the units concerned. ebook An ebook version of English Grammar in Use is also available to buy. facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib ix To the teacher English Grammar in Use was written as a self-study grammar book, but teachers may also find it useful as additional course material in cases where further work on grammar is necessary. The book will probably be most useful at middle- and upper-intermediate levels (where all or nearly all of the material will be relevant), and can serve both as a basis for revision and as a means for practising new structures. It will also be useful for some more advanced students who have problems with grammar and need a book for reference and practice. The book is not intended to be used by elementary learners. The units are organised in grammatical categories (Present and past, Articles and nouns, Prepositions etc.). They are not ordered according to level of difficulty, so the book should not be worked through from beginning to end. It should be used selectively and flexibly in accordance with the grammar syllabus being used and the difficulties students are having. The book can be used for immediate consolidation or for later revision or remedial work. It might be used by the whole class or by individual students needing extra help. The left-hand pages (explanations and examples) are written for the student to use individually, but they may of course be used by the teacher as a source of ideas and information on which to base a lesson. The student then has the left-hand page as a record of what has been taught and can refer to it in the future. The exercises can be done individually, in class or as homework. Alternatively (and additionally), individual students can be directed to study certain units of the book by themselves if they have particular difficulties not shared by other students in their class. Don’t forget the Additional exercises at the back of the book (see To the student). English Grammar in Use Fifth Edition This is a new edition of English Grammar in Use. The differences between this edition and the fourth edition are: Much of the material has been revised or reorganised, and in most units there are changes in the examples, explanations and exercises. The book has been redesigned with new, updated illustrations. There is a new ebook available with all the contents of the book as well as audio, access to a dictionary and more. An edition of English Grammar in Use without the Key is also available. Some teachers may prefer to use this with their students. x facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib Unit Present continuous (I am doing) 1 A Study this example situation: Sarah is in her car. She is on her way to work. She’s driving to work. (= She is driving …) This means: she is driving now, at the time of speaking. The action is not finished. am/is/are + -ing is the present continuous: I he/she/it we/you/they B am is are (= I’m) (= he’s etc.) (= we’re etc.) driving working doing etc. I am doing something = I started doing it and I haven’t finished; I’m in the middle of doing it. Please don’t make so much noise. I’m trying to work. (not I try) ‘Where’s Mark?’ ‘He’s having a shower.’ (not He has a shower) Let’s go out now. It isn’t raining any more. (not It doesn’t rain) How’s your new job? Are you enjoying it? What’s all that noise? What’s going on? or What’s happening? Sometimes the action is not happening at the time of speaking. For example: Steve is talking to a friend on the phone. He says: I’m reading a really good book at the moment. It’s about a man who … Steve says ‘I’m reading …’ but he is not reading the book at the time of speaking. He means that he has started reading the book, but has not finished it yet. He is in the middle of reading it. Some more examples: Kate wants to work in Italy, so she’s learning Italian. (but perhaps she isn’t learning Italian at the time of speaking) Some friends of mine are building their own house. They hope to finish it next summer. C You can use the present continuous with today / this week / this year etc. (periods around now): a: You’re working hard today. (not You work hard today) b: Yes, I have a lot to do. The company I work for isn’t doing so well this year. D We use the present continuous when we talk about a change that has started to happen. We often use these verbs in this way: getting, becoming starting, beginning changing, improving increasing, rising, falling, growing Is your English getting better? (not Does your English get better) The population of the world is increasing very fast. (not increases) At first I didn’t like my job, but I’m starting to enjoy it now. (not I start) 2 Present continuous and present simple ➜ Units 3–4 Present tenses for the future ➜ Unit 19 facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib Unit Exercises 1.1 1 What’s happening in the pictures? Choose from these verbs: cross 1 hide scratch 2 1 She’s taking 2 He 3 1.2 1.4 tie wave 3 4 a picture. a shoelace. the road. 5 6 4 5 6 his head. behind a tree. to somebody. The sentences on the right follow those on the left. Which sentence goes with which? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1.3 take Please don’t make so much noise. We need to leave soon. I don’t have anywhere to live right now. I need to eat something soon. They don’t need their car any more. Things are not so good at work. It isn’t true what they say. We’re going to get wet. a b c d e f g h I’m getting hungry. They’re lying. It’s starting to rain. They’re trying to sell it. It’s getting late. I’m trying to work. I’m staying with friends. The company is losing money. Write questions. Use the present continuous. 1 What’s all that noise? What’s happening? 2 What’s the matter? 3 Where’s your mother? 4 I haven’t seen you for ages. 5 Amy is a student. 6 Who are those people? 7 I heard you started a new job. 8 We’re not in a hurry. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 f (what / happen?) (why / you / cry?) (she / work / today?) (what / you / do / these days?) (what / she / study?) (what / they / do?) (you / enjoy / it?) (why / you / walk / so fast?) Put the verb into the correct form, positive (I’m doing etc.) or negative (I’m not doing etc.). 1 Please don’t make so much noise. I’m trying (I / try) to work. 2 Let’s go out now. It isn’t raining (it / rain) any more. 3 You can turn off the radio. (I / listen) to it. 4 Kate phoned last night. She’s on holiday with friends. (She / have) a great time and doesn’t want to come back. 5 Andrew started evening classes recently. (He / learn) Japanese. 6 Paul and Sarah have had an argument and now (they / speak) to one another. 7 The situation is already very bad and now (it / get) worse. 8 Tim (work) today. He’s taken the day off. 9 (I / look) for Sophie. Do you know where she is? 10 The washing machine has been repaired. (It / work) now. 11 (They / build) a new hospital. It will be finished next year. 12 Ben is a student, but he’s not very happy. (He / enjoy) his course. 13 (The weather / change). Look at those clouds. I think it’s going to rain. 14 Dan has been in the same job for a long time. (He / start) to get bored with it. facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib 3 Unit Present simple (I do) 2 A Study this example situation: Alex is a bus driver, but now he is in bed asleep. He is not driving a bus. (He is asleep.) but He drives a bus. He is a bus driver. drive(s), work(s), do(es) etc. is the present simple: I/we/you/they he/she/it B drive/work/do etc. drives/works/does etc. We use the present simple to talk about things in general. We use it to say that something happens all the time or repeatedly, or that something is true in general: Nurses look after patients in hospitals. I usually go away at weekends. The earth goes round the sun. The cafe opens at 7.30 in the morning. We say: I work they teach but but he works my sister teaches you go I have but but it goes he has For spelling (-s or -es), see Appendix 6. C We use do/does to make questions and negative sentences: do does I/we/you/they he/she/it work? drive? do? I/we/you/they he/she/it work don’t drive doesn’t do I come from Canada. Where do you come from? I don’t go away very often. What does this word mean? (not What means this word?) Rice doesn’t grow in cold climates. In the following examples, do is also the main verb (do you do / doesn’t do etc.): ‘What do you do?’ ‘I work in a shop.’ He’s always so lazy. He doesn’t do anything to help. D We use the present simple to say how often we do things: I get up at 8 o’clock every morning. How often do you go to the dentist? Julie doesn’t drink tea very often. Robert usually goes away two or three times a year. E I promise / I apologise etc. Sometimes we do things by saying something. For example, when you promise to do something, you can say ‘I promise … ’; when you suggest something, you can say ‘I suggest … ’: I promise I won’t be late. (not I’m promising) ‘What do you suggest I do?’ ‘I suggest that you …’ In the same way we say: I apologise … / I advise … / I insist … / I agree … / I refuse … etc. 4 Present simple and present continuous ➜ Units 3–4 Present tenses for the future ➜ Unit 19 facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib Unit Exercises 2.1 2 Complete the sentences using the following verbs: cause(s) close(s) 1 Tanya speaks 2 Ben and Jack school. 3 Bad driving 4 The museum Sundays. connect(s) go(es) live(s) speak(s) take(s) 5 My parents in a very small flat. 6 The Olympic Games place every four years. 7 The Panama Canal the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. German very well. to the same many accidents. at 4 o’clock on 2.2 Put the verb into the correct form. 1 Julia doesn’t drink (not / drink) tea very often. 2 What time (the banks / close) here? 3 I have a car, but I (not / use) it much. 4 Where (Maria / come) from? Is she Spanish? 5 ‘What (you / do)?’ ‘I’m an electrician.’ 6 Look at this sentence. What (this word / mean)? 7 David isn’t very fit. He (not / do) any sport. 8 It (take) me an hour to get to work in the morning. How long (it / take) you? 2.3 Complete the sentences using these verbs. Sometimes you need the negative. believe 1 2 3 4 5 6 2.4 eat flow go grow make The earth goes round the sun. Rice doesn’t grow in cold climates. The sun in the east. Bees honey. Vegetarians meat. An atheist in God. rise tell translate 7 An interpreter from one language into another. 8 Liars are people who the truth. 9 The River Amazon into the Atlantic Ocean. You ask Lisa questions about herself and her family. Write the questions. 1 You know that Lisa plays tennis. You want to know how often. Ask her. How often do you play tennis ? 2 Perhaps Lisa’s sister plays tennis too. You want to know. Ask Lisa. your sister 3 You know that Lisa goes to the cinema a lot. You want to know how often. Ask her. ? ? 4 You know that Lisa’s brother works. You want to know what he does. Ask Lisa. ? 5 You’re not sure whether Lisa speaks Spanish. You want to know. Ask her. ? 6 You don’t know where Lisa’s grandparents live. You want to know. Ask Lisa. ? 2.5 Complete using the following: I agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 I apologise I insist I promise I recommend I suggest Mr Evans is not in the office today. I suggest you try calling him tomorrow. I won’t tell anybody what you said. . (in a restaurant) You must let me pay for the meal. . for what I said. I shouldn’t have said it. The new restaurant in Baker Street is very good. it. I think you’re absolutely right. with you. facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib 5 Unit Present continuous and present simple 1 (I am doing and I do) 3 A Compare: present continuous (I am doing) present simple (I do) We use the continuous for things happening at or around the time of speaking. The action is not complete. We use the simple for things in general or things that happen repeatedly. I do I am doing past now future past The water is boiling. Be careful. Listen to those people. What language are they speaking? Let’s go out. It isn’t raining now. ‘I’m busy.’ ‘What are you doing?’ I’m getting hungry. Let’s go and eat. Kate wants to work in Italy, so she’s learning Italian. The population of the world is increasing very fast. B now Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. Excuse me, do you speak English? It doesn’t rain very much in summer. What do you usually do at weekends? I always get hungry in the afternoon. Most people learn to swim when they are children. Every day the population of the world increases by about 200,000 people. We use the continuous for temporary situations (things that continue for a short time): I’m living with some friends until I find a place of my own. a: You’re working hard today. b: Yes, I have a lot to do. We use the simple for permanent situations (things that continue for a long time): My parents live in London. They have lived there all their lives. Joe isn’t lazy. He works hard most of the time. See Unit 1 for more information. See Unit 2 for more information. I always do and I’m always doing I always do something = I do it every time: I always go to work by car. (not I’m always going) I’m always doing something = I do it too often or more often than normal. For example: I’ve lost my keys again. I’m always losing them. I’m always losing them = I lose them too often, or more often than normal. Paul is never satisfied. He’s always complaining. (= he complains too much) You’re always looking at your phone. Don’t you have anything else to do? 6 future How long Present continuous have you and (been) simple … ? 2 ➜Unit Unit 114 Present tenses for the future ➜ Unit 19 facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib Unit Exercises 3.1 Are the underlined verbs OK? Correct them where necessary. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 3.2 3.3 3.4 3 Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. How often are you going to the cinema? Ben tries to find a job, but he hasn’t had any luck yet. Martina is phoning her mother every day. The moon goes round the earth in about 27 days. Can you hear those people? What do they talk about? What do you do in your spare time? Sarah is a vegetarian. She doesn’t eat meat. I must go now. It gets late. ‘Come on! It’s time to leave.’ ‘OK, I come.’ Paul is never late. He’s always starting work on time. They don’t get on well. They’re always arguing. OK do you go Put the verb into the correct form, present continuous or present simple. 1 a I usually get (I / usually / get) hungry in the afternoon. b I’m getting (I / get) hungry. Let’s go and eat something. 2 a ‘ (you / listen) to the radio?’ ‘No, you can turn it off.’ b ‘ (you / listen) to the radio a lot?’ ‘No, not very often.’ 3 a The River Nile (flow) into the Mediterranean. b The river (flow) very fast today – much faster than usual. 4 a I’m not very active. (I / not / do) any sport. b What (you / usually / do) at weekends? 5 a Rachel is in New York right now. (She / stay) at the Park Hotel. b (She / always / stay) there when she’s in New York. Put the verb into the correct form, present continuous or present simple. 1 Why are all these people here? What’s happening (What / happen)? 2 Julia is good at languages. (She / speak) four languages very well. 3 Are you ready yet? (Everybody / wait) for you. 4 I’ve never heard this word. How (you / pronounce) it? 5 Kate (not / work) this week. She’s on holiday. 6 I think my English (improve) slowly. It’s better than it was. 7 Nicola (live) in Manchester. She has never lived anywhere else. 8 Can we stop walking soon? (I / start) to get tired. 9 Sam and Tina are in Madrid right now. (They / visit) a friend of theirs. 10 ‘What (your father / do)?’ ‘He’s an architect.’ 11 It took me an hour to get to work this morning. Most days (it / not / take) so long. 12 I (I / learn) to drive. My driving test is next month. My father (teach) me. Finish B’s sentences. Use always -ing. 1 a: b: 2 a: b: 3 a: b: 4 a: b: I’ve lost my keys again. Not again! You’re always losing your keys The car has broken down again. That car is useless. It Look! You’ve made the same mistake again. Oh no, not again! I Oh, I’ve left my phone at home again. Typical! facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib . . . . 7 Unit Present continuous and present simple 2 (I am doing and I do) 4 A We use continuous forms (I’m waiting, it’s raining etc.) for actions and happenings that have started but not finished. Some verbs (for example, know and like) are not normally used in this way. We don’t say ‘I am knowing’, ‘they are liking’. We say ‘I know’, ‘they like’. The following verbs are not normally used in the present continuous: like want know need realise prefer understand believe suppose belong fit recognise remember contain mean consist seem I’m hungry. I want something to eat. (not I’m wanting) Do you understand what I mean? Anna doesn’t seem very happy right now. B think When think means ‘believe’ or ‘have an opinion’, we do not use the continuous: I think Mary is Canadian, but I’m not sure. (not I’m thinking) What do you think of my idea? (= what is your opinion?) When think means ‘consider’, the continuous is possible: I’m thinking about what happened. I often think about it. Nicky is thinking of giving up her job. (= she is considering it) C see hear smell taste look feel We normally use the present simple (not continuous) with see/hear/smell/taste: Do you see that man over there? (not are you seeing) The room smells. Let’s open a window. This soup doesn’t taste very good. You can use the present simple or continuous to say how somebody looks or feels now: You look well today. or You’re looking well today. How do you feel now? or How are you feeling now? but I usually feel tired in the morning. (not I’m usually feeling) D am/is/are being You can say he’s being … , you’re being … etc. to say how somebody is behaving now: I can’t understand why he’s being so selfish. He isn’t usually like that. (being selfish = behaving selfishly now) ‘The path is icy. Don’t slip.’ ‘Don’t worry. I’m being very careful.’ Compare: He never thinks about other people. He’s very selfish. (= he is selfish generally, not only now) I don’t like to take risks. I’m a very careful person. We use am/is/are being to say how a person is behaving (= doing something they can control) now. It is not usually possible in other situations: Sam is ill. (not is being ill) Are you tired? (not are you being tired) 8 Present continuous and simple 1 ➜ Unit 3 have ➜ Unit 17 Present tenses for the future ➜ Unit 19 facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib Unit Exercises 4.1 4.2 4 Put the verb into the correct form, present continuous or present simple. 1 Are you hungry? Do you want (you / want) something to eat? 2 Alan says he’s 90 years old, but nobody (believe) him. 3 She told me her name, but (I / not / remember) it now. 4 Don’t put the dictionary away. (I / use) it. 5 Don’t put the dictionary away. (I / need) it. 6 Air (consist) mainly of nitrogen and oxygen. 7 Who is that man? What (he / want)? 8 Who is that man? Why (he / look) at us? 9 Who is that man? (you / recognise) him? 10 (I / think) of selling my car. Would you be interested in buying it? 11 I can’t make up my mind. What (you / think) I should do? 12 Gary wasn’t well earlier, but (he / seem) OK now. Use the words in brackets to make sentences. 1 2 Are you OK? You look worried. (you / not / seem / very happy today) You don’t seem very happy today. (I / think) 3 4 (this / smell / good) (who / this umbrella / belong to?) I’ve no idea. 5 6 (these gloves / not / fit / me) Excuse me. (anybody / sit / there?) No, it’s free. They’re too small. 4.3 Are the underlined verbs OK? Correct them where necessary. OK 1 Nicky is thinking of giving up her job. I don’t believe it. 2 It’s not true. I’m not believing it. 3 I’m feeling hungry. Is there anything to eat? 4 I’ve never eaten that fruit. What is it tasting like? 5 I’m not sure what she does. I think she works in a shop. 6 Look over there. What are you seeing? 7 You’re very quiet. What are you thinking about? 4.4 Complete the sentences. Use is/are being (continuous) or is/are (simple). 1 I can’t understand why he’s being so selfish. He isn’t usually like that. 2 You’ll like Sophie when you meet her. She very nice. 3 Sarah very nice to me at the moment. I wonder why. 4 They very happy. They’ve just got married. 5 You’re normally very patient, so why so unreasonable about waiting ten more minutes? 6 Would you like something to eat? hungry? facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib 9 Unit Past simple (I did) 5 A Study this example: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was an Austrian musician and composer. He lived from 1756 to 1791. He started composing at the age of five and wrote more than 600 pieces of music. He was only 35 years old when he died. lived/started/wrote/was/died are all past simple B Very often the past simple ends in -ed (regular verbs): I work in a travel agency now. Before that I worked in a department store. They invited us to their party, but we decided not to go. The police stopped me on my way home last night. Laura passed her exam because she studied very hard. For spelling (stopped, studied etc.), see Appendix 6. But many verbs are irregular. The past simple does not end in -ed. For example: write → wrote Mozart wrote more than 600 pieces of music. see → saw We saw Alice in town a few days ago. go → went I went to the cinema three times last week. shut → shut It was cold, so I shut the window. For a list of irregular verbs, see Appendix 1. C In questions and negative sentences we use did/didn’t + infinitive (enjoy/see/go etc.): I she they enjoyed saw went did you she they enjoy? see? go? I she they didn’t enjoy see go I enjoyed the party a lot. Did you enjoy it? How many people did they invite to the wedding? I didn’t buy anything because I didn’t have any money. ‘Did you go out?’ ‘No, I didn’t.’ Sometimes do is the main verb in the sentence (did you do?, I didn’t do): What did you do at the weekend? (not What did you at the weekend?) I didn’t do anything. (not I didn’t anything) D The past of be (am/is/are) is was/were: I/he/she/it we/you/they was/wasn’t was I/he/she/it? were/weren’t were we/you/they? I was annoyed because they were late. Was the weather good when you were on holiday? They weren’t able to come because they were so busy. I wasn’t hungry, so I didn’t eat anything. Did you go out last night or were you too tired? 10 Past simple and past continuous ➜ Unit 6 Past simple and present perfect ➜ Units 12–14 facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib Unit Exercises 5.1 5 Read what Laura says about a typical working day: I usually get up at 7 o’clock and have a big breakfast. I walk to work, which takes me about half an hour. I start work at 8.45. I never have lunch. I finish work at 5 o’clock. I’m always tired when I get home. I usually cook a meal in the evening. I don’t usually go out. I go to bed at about 11 o’clock, and I always sleep well. LAURA Yesterday was a typical working day for Laura. Write what she did or didn’t do yesterday. 7 at 5 o’clock. 1 She got up at 7 o’clock. 8 tired when home. 2 She a big breakfast. 9 a meal yesterday evening. 3 She . out yesterday evening. 4 It to get to work. 10 11 at 11 o’clock. 5 at 8.45. well last night. 6 lunch. 12 5.2 Complete the sentences using the following verbs in the correct form: buy 1 2 3 4 5 6 5.3 5.4 catch cost fall hurt sell spend Mozart wrote more than 600 pieces of music. ‘How did you learn to drive?’ ‘My father We couldn’t afford to keep our car, so we Dave down the stairs this morning and Joe the ball to Sue, who Kate a lot of money yesterday. She £100. teach throw write me.’ it. his leg. it. a dress which You ask James about his holiday in the US. Write your questions. 1 YOU: Where did you go ? JaMES: To the US. We went on a trip from San Francisco to Denver. 2 YOU: How ? By car? JaMES: Yes, we hired a car in San Francisco. 3 YOU: It’s a long way to drive. How long JaMES: Two weeks. We stopped at a lot of places along the way. 4 YOU: Where ? In hotels? JaMES: Yes, small hotels or motels. 5 YOU: good? JaMES: Yes, but it was very hot – sometimes too hot. 6 YOU: the Grand Canyon? JaMES: Of course. It was wonderful. ? Complete the sentences. Put the verb into the correct form, positive or negative. 1 It was warm, so I took off my coat. (take) 2 The film wasn’t very good. I didn’t enjoy it much. (enjoy) 3 I knew Sarah was busy, so I her. (disturb) 4 We were very tired, so we the party early. (leave) 5 It was hard carrying the bags. They really heavy. (be) 6 The bed was very uncomfortable. I well. (sleep) 7 This watch wasn’t expensive. It much. (cost) 8 The window was open and a bird into the room. (fly) 9 I was in a hurry, so I time to call you. (have) 10 I didn’t like the hotel. The room very clean. (be) facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib 11 Unit Past continuous (I was doing) 6 A Study this example situation: Yesterday Karen and Joe played tennis. They started at 10 o’clock and finished at 11.30. So, at 10.30 they were playing tennis. they were playing = they were in the middle of playing, they had not finished was/were + -ing is the past continuous: B he/she/it was we/you/they were playing doing working etc. I was doing something = I was in the middle of doing it at a certain time. The action or situation started before this time, but had not finished: I started doing I was doing I finished doing past past now This time last year I was living in Hong Kong. What were you doing at 10 o’clock last night? I waved to Helen, but she wasn’t looking. C Compare I was doing (past continuous) and I did (past simple): I was doing (= in the middle of an action) D I did (= complete action) We were walking home when I met Dan. (in the middle of walking home) We walked home after the party last night. (= all the way, completely) Kate was watching TV when we arrived. Kate watched TV a lot when she was ill last year. You can say that something happened (past simple) in the middle of something else (past continuous): Matt phoned while we were having dinner. It was raining when I got up. I saw you in the park yesterday. You were sitting on the grass and reading a book. I hurt my back while I was working in the garden. But we use the past simple to say that one thing happened after another: I was walking along the road when I saw Dan. So I stopped, and we talked for a while. Compare: When Karen arrived, we were having dinner. (= we had already started before she arrived) E 12 When Karen arrived, we had dinner. (= Karen arrived, and then we had dinner) Some verbs (for example, know and want) are not normally used in continuous forms (is + -ing, was + -ing etc.). See Unit 4A for a list of these verbs. We were good friends. We knew each other well. (not we were knowing) I was enjoying the party, but Chris wanted to go home. (not was wanting) Past simple (I did) ➜ Unit 5 facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib Unit Exercises 6.1 6 Complete the sentences. Choose from: was looking was snowing weren’t looking were you going Which goes with which? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6.3 wasn’t listening were sitting Today Helen is wearing a skirt. Yesterday she was wearing trousers. ‘What did he say?’ ‘I don’t know. I .’ We at the back of the theatre. We couldn’t hear very well. This time last year Steve on a farm. They didn’t see me. They in my direction. The weather was bad. It was very cold and it . I saw you in your car. Where ? I saw Kate a few minutes ago. She for you. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6.2 was wearing was working When I got to the cafe We fell asleep Amy learnt Italian Tom didn’t come out with us The car began to make a strange noise The TV was on When I first met Jessica a b c d e f g when she was living in Rome. she was working in a clothes shop. when I was driving home. but nobody was watching it. while we were watching a film. my friends were waiting for me. because he wasn’t feeling well. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 f Put the verb into the correct form, past continuous or past simple. 1 2 SUE I saw she She 6.4 (see) Sue in town yesterday, but (not/see) me. (look) the other way. I when a man road in front of me. I I and I (cycle) home yesterday (step) out into the (go) quite fast, but luckily (manage) to stop in time, (not/hit) him. Put the verb into the correct form, past continuous or past simple. 1 Jenny was waiting (wait) for me when I arrived (arrive). 2 ‘What (you / do) at this time yesterday?’ ‘I was asleep.’ 3 ‘ (you / go) out last night?’ ‘No, I was too tired.’ 4 How fast (you / drive) when the accident (happen)? 5 Sam (take) a picture of me while I (not / look). 6 We were in a very difficult position. We (not / know) what to do, so we (do) nothing. 7 I haven’t seen Alan for ages. When I last (see) him, he (try) to find a job. 8 I (walk) along the street when suddenly I (hear) something behind me. Somebody (follow) me. I was scared and I (start) to run. 9 When I was young, I (want) to be a pilot. Later I (change) my mind. 10 Last night I (drop) a plate when I (do) the washing up. Fortunately it (not / break). ➜ Additional exercise 1 (page 302) facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib 13 Unit Present perfect 1 (I have done) 7 A Study this example situation: I’ve lost my key. Tom can’t find his key. He’s lost his key. (= He has lost …) he has lost his key = he lost it and he doesn’t have it now have lost / has lost is the present perfect simple: I/we/they/you have (= I’ve etc.) he/she/it has (= he’s etc.) finished lost done been etc. The present perfect simple is have/has + past participle. The past participle often ends in -ed (finished/decided etc.), but many verbs are irregular (lost/done/written etc.). For a list of irregular verbs, see Appendix 1. B When we say ‘something has happened’, this is usually new information: Ow! I’ve cut my finger. The road is closed. There’s been an accident. (= There has been …) Police have arrested two men in connection with the robbery. When we use the present perfect, there is a connection with now. The action in the past has a result now: Tom has lost his key. (= he doesn’t have it now) He told me his name, but I’ve forgotten it. (= I can’t remember it now) Sally is still here. She hasn’t gone out. (= she is here now) I can’t find my bag. Have you seen it? (= do you know where it is now?) Compare gone (to) and been (to): James is on holiday. He has gone to Italy. (= he is there now or on his way there) Amy is back home now. She has been to Italy. (= she has now come back) C You can use the present perfect with just, already and yet. Just = a short time ago: ‘Are you hungry?’ ‘No, I’ve just had lunch.’ Hello. Have you just arrived? Already = sooner than expected: ‘Don’t forget to pay the bill.’ ‘I’ve already paid it.’ ‘What time is Mark leaving?’ ‘He’s already left.’ Yet = until now. We use yet to show that we are expecting something to happen. We use yet in questions and negative sentences: Has it stopped raining yet? I’ve written the email, but I haven’t sent it yet. D 14 You can also use the past simple (did, went, had etc.) in the examples on this page. So you can say: Ben isn’t here. He’s gone out. or He went out. ‘Are you hungry?’ ‘No, I’ve just had lunch.’ or ‘No, I just had lunch.’ Present perfect ➜ Units 8, 11 been to ➜ Units 8A, 126A Present perfect continuous ➜ Units 9–10 Present perfect and past ➜ Units 12–14 yet and already ➜ Unit 111 American English ➜ Appendix 7 facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib Unit Exercises 7.1 Read the situations and complete the sentences using the present perfect. Choose from these verbs: break 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.2 7.4 disappear go up grow improve lose Tom is looking for his key. He can’t find it. Maria’s English wasn’t very good. Now it is better. My bag was here, but it isn’t here any more. Lisa can’t walk and her leg is in plaster. Last week the bus fare was £1.80. Now it is £2. Dan didn’t have a beard before. Now he has a beard. It was raining ten minutes ago. It isn’t raining now. I washed my sweater, and now it’s too small for me. shrink stop Tom has lost his key. Her English My bag Lisa The bus fare Dan It My sweater Put in been or gone. 1 2 3 4 5 7.3 7 My parents are on holiday. They’ve gone to Italy. Hello! I’ve just to the shops. I’ve bought lots of things. Tom has just out. He’ll be back in about an hour. Alice isn’t here at the moment. I don’t know where she’s You’re very late. Where have you ? . Complete the sentences using the present perfect. 1 Sally is still here. She hasn’t gone (she / not / go) out. 2 I can’t find my bag. (you / see / it) anywhere? 3 I can’t log on to the website. (I / forget) my password. 4 I sent Joe an email this morning, but (he / not / reply). 5 Is the meeting still going on, or (it / finish)? 6 (the weather / change). It’s colder now. 7 (you / not / sign) the form. Could you sign it now, please? 8 Are your friends still here, or (they / go) home? 9 Paul doesn’t know what he’s going to do. (he / not / decide / yet). 10 ‘Do you know where Julia is?’ ‘Yes, (I / just / see / her).’ 11 ‘When is David going away?’ ‘ (he / already / go).’ 12 a: (your course / start / yet)? b: Not yet. It starts next week. Read the situations and write sentences with just, already or yet. 1 After lunch you go to see a friend at her house. She says, ‘Would you like something to eat?’ You say: No thank you. I’ve just had lunch . (have lunch) 2 Joe goes out. Five minutes later, the phone rings and the caller says, ‘Can I speak to Joe?’ You say: I’m afraid . (go out) 3 You are eating in a restaurant. The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to take your plate away. You say: Wait a minute! . (not / finish) 4 You plan to eat at a restaurant tonight. You phone to reserve a table. Later your friend says, ‘Shall I phone to reserve a table?’ You say: No, . (do it) 5 You know that Lisa is looking for a place to live. Perhaps she has been successful. You ask her: ? (find) 6 You are still thinking about where to go for your holiday. A friend asks, ‘Where are you going for your holiday?’ You say: . (not / decide) 7 Laura went out, but a few minutes ago she returned. Somebody asks, ‘Is Laura still out?’ You say: No, . (come back) facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib 15 Unit Present perfect 2 (I have done) 8 A Study this example conversation: DaVE: JaNE: DaVE: JaNE: DaVE: JaNE: Have you travelled a lot, Jane? Yes, I’ve been to lots of places. Really? Have you ever been to China? Yes, I’ve been to China twice. What about India? No, I haven’t been to India. Jane’s life (a period until now) past now When we talk about a period of time that continues from the past until now, we use the present perfect (have been / have travelled etc.). Here, Dave and Jane are talking about the places Jane has visited in her life, which is a period that continues until now. In the same way we say: Have you ever eaten caviar? We’ve never had a car. I don’t know what the film is about. I haven’t seen it. Susan really loves that book. She’s read it three times. (She’s = She has) It’s a really boring movie. It’s the most boring movie I’ve ever seen. been (to) = visited: I’ve never been to Canada. Have you been there? B In the following examples too, the speakers are talking about a period that continues until now (recently, in the last few days, so far, since I arrived etc.): Have you heard anything from Ben recently? recently I’ve met a lot of people in the last few days. in the last few days Everything is going well. There haven’t been any since I arrived problems so far. The weather is bad here. It’s (= It has) rained every past now day since I arrived. (= from when I arrived until now) It’s good to see you again. We haven’t seen each other for a long time. In the same way we use the present perfect with today, this evening, this year etc. when these periods are not finished at the time of speaking: I’ve drunk four cups of coffee today. today Have you had a holiday this year? past I haven’t seen Tom this morning. Have you? C We say ‘It’s the (first) time something has happened’. For example: Don is having a driving lesson. It’s his first lesson. We can say: It’s the first time he has driven a car. (not drives) or He hasn’t driven a car before. or He has never driven a car before. In the same way we say: Sarah has lost her passport again. This is the second time this has happened. (not happens) Andy is phoning his girlfriend again. It’s the third time he’s phoned her this evening. 16 Present perfect 1 ➜ Unit 7 Presentfacebook.com/LinguaLIB perfect + for/since ➜ Units 11–12 vk.com/lingualib now This is the first time I’ve driven a car. Present perfect and past ➜ Units 12–14 Unit Exercises 8 8.1 You ask people about things they have done. Write questions with ever. 1 (ride / horse?) Have you ever ridden a horse? 2 (be / California?) Have 3 (run / marathon?) 4 (speak / famous person?) 5 (most beautiful place / visit?) What’s 8.2 Complete B’s answers. Some sentences are positive and some negative. Use these verbs: be be eat happen have have meet play read see try A 8.3 B 1 What’s Mark’s sister like? 2 Is everything going well? 3 Are you hungry? 4 Can you play chess? 5 Are you enjoying your holiday? 6 What’s that book about? 7 Is Brussels an interesting place? 8 I hear your car broke down again yesterday. 9 Do you like caviar? 10 Mike was late for work again today. 11 Who’s that woman by the door? Yes. I much today. for ages. Yes, but Yes, it’s the best holiday for a long time. I don’t know. it. there. I’ve no idea. Yes, it’s the second time this month. I don’t know. Again? He it. late every day this week. I don’t know. her before. Write four sentences about yourself. Use I haven’t and choose from the boxes. used a computer been to the cinema 1 2 3 4 5 8.4 I’ve never met her. Yes, we haven’t had any problems so far. I’ve no idea. travelled by bus read a book eaten any fruit lost anything I haven’t used a computer today. today this week recently for ages since … this year Read the situations and complete the sentences. 1 Jack is driving a car for the first time. He’s very nervous and not sure what to do. It’s the first time he’s driven a car. 2 Some children at the zoo are looking at a giraffe. They’ve never seen one before. It’s the first time a giraffe. 3 Sue is riding a horse. She doesn’t look very confident or comfortable. She before. 4 Joe and Lisa are on holiday in Japan. They’ve been to Japan once before. This is the second time . 5 Emily is staying at the Prince Hotel. She stayed there a few years ago. It’s not the first this hotel. 6 Ben is playing tennis for the first time. He’s a complete beginner. before. facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib 17 Unit Present perfect continuous (I have been doing) 9 A It’s been raining. Study this example situation: Is it raining? No, but the ground is wet. It’s been raining. (= It has been …) have/has been + -ing is the present perfect continuous: I/we/they/you he/she/it have has (= I’ve etc.) (= he’s etc.) been doing working learning etc. We use the present perfect continuous for an activity that has recently stopped or just stopped: Why are you out of breath? Have you been running? Paul is very tired. He’s been working hard. have/has been + -ing Why are you so tired? What have you been doing? present perfect continuous I’ve been talking to Amanda and she agrees with me. Where have you been? I’ve been looking for you. now B It’s been raining for two hours. Study this example situation: It began raining two hours ago and it is still raining. How long has it been raining? It’s been raining for two hours. (= It has been …) We use the present perfect continuous in this way, especially with how long, for … and since … . The activity is still happening (as in this example) or has just stopped. How long have you been learning English? (= you’re still learning English) Ben is watching TV. He’s been watching TV all day. Where have you been? I’ve been looking for you for the last half hour. Chris hasn’t been feeling well recently. You can use the present perfect continuous for repeated actions: Silvia is a very good tennis player. She’s been playing since she was eight. Every morning they meet in the same cafe. They’ve been going there for years. C Compare I am doing and I have been doing: I am doing present continuous now Don’t disturb me now. I’m working. We need an umbrella. It’s raining. Hurry up! We’re waiting. 18 I have been doing present perfect continuous now I’ve been working hard. Now I’m going to have a break. The ground is wet. It’s been raining. We’ve been waiting for an hour. Present perfect continuous and simple ➜ Units 10–11 Present perfect + for/since ➜ Units 11–12 facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib Unit Exercises 9.1 What have these people been doing or what has been happening? 1 earlier now It’s been raining. 9.2 9 2 earlier 3 earlier 4 now now now She They He earlier Write a question for each situation. 1 You meet Kate as she is leaving the swimming pool. You say: Hi, Kate. (you / swim?) Have you been swimming? 2 You have arrived a little late to meet Ben who is waiting for you. You say: I’m sorry I’m late, Ben. (you / wait / long?) 3 Jane’s little boy comes into the house with a very dirty face and dirty hands. His mother says: Why are you so dirty? (what / you / do?) 4 You are in a shop and see Anna. You didn’t know she worked there. You say: Hi, Anna. (how long / you / work / here?) 5 A friend tells you about his job – he sells phones. You say: You sell phones? (how long / you / do / that?) 9.3 Read the situations and complete the sentences. 1 It’s raining. The rain started two hours ago. It ’s been raining for two hours. 2 We are waiting for the bus. We started waiting 20 minutes ago. We for 20 minutes. 3 I’m learning Japanese. I started classes in December. I since December. 4 Jessica is working in a hotel. She started working there on 18 January. since 18 January. 5 Our friends always go to Italy for their holidays. The first time was years ago. for years. 9.4 Put the verb into the present continuous (am/is/are + -ing) or present perfect continuous (have/has been + -ing). 1 Maria has been learning (Maria / learn) English for two years. 2 Hi, Tom. (I / look) for you. I need to ask you something. 3 Why (you / look) at me like that? Stop it! 4 Rachel is a teacher. (she / teach) for ten years. 5 (I / think) about what you said and I’ve decided to take your advice. 6 ‘Is Paul on holiday this week?’ ‘No, (he / work).’ 7 Sarah is very tired. (she / work) very hard recently. 8 It’s dangerous to use your phone when (you / drive). 9 Laura (travel) in South America for the last three months. facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib 19 Unit Present perfect continuous and simple (I have been doing and I have done) 10 A Compare these two situations: I’ve been painting my bedroom. There is paint on Kate’s clothes. She has been painting her bedroom. The bedroom was green. Now it is yellow. She has painted her bedroom. has been painting is the present perfect continuous. has painted is the present perfect simple. We are thinking of the activity. It does not matter whether it has been finished or not. In this example, the activity (painting the bedroom) has not been finished. B I’ve painted my bedroom. Here, the important thing is that something has been finished. ‘She has painted’ is a completed action. We are thinking about the result of the activity (the painted bedroom), not the activity itself. Compare these examples: My hands are very dirty. I’ve been repairing my bike. Joe has been eating too much recently. He should eat less. It’s nice to see you again. What have you been doing since we last met? Where have you been? Have you been playing tennis? C We use the continuous to say how long (for something that is still happening): How long have you been reading that book? Amy is writing emails. She’s been writing emails all morning. They’ve been playing tennis since 2 o’clock. My bike is OK again now. I’ve repaired it. (= I’ve finished repairing it) Somebody has eaten all the chocolates. The box is empty. Where’s the book I gave you? What have you done with it? Have you ever played tennis? We use the simple to say how much, how many or how many times (for completed actions): How many pages of that book have you read? Amy has sent lots of emails this morning. I’m learning Arabic, but I haven’t been learning it very long. D They’ve played tennis three times this week. I’m learning Arabic, but I haven’t learnt very much yet. Some verbs (for example, know) are not normally used in continuous forms (be + -ing): I’ve known about the problem for a long time. (not I’ve been knowing) How long have you had that camera? (not have you been having) For a list of these verbs, see Unit 4A. For have, see Unit 17. But note that you can use want and mean in the present perfect continuous (have/has been + -ing): I’ve been meaning to phone Anna, but I keep forgetting. 20 Present perfect simple ➜ Units 7–8 Present perfect continuous ➜ Unit 9 Present perfect + for/since ➜ Units 11–12 facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib Unit Exercises 10.1 10 Read the situation and complete the sentences. Use the verbs in brackets. 1 Tom started reading a book two hours ago. He is still reading it and now he is on page 53. He has been reading for two hours. (read) He has read 53 pages so far. (read) 2 Rachel is from Australia. She is travelling round Europe. She began her trip three months ago. for three months. (travel) She six countries so far. (visit) 3 Patrick is a tennis player. He began playing tennis when he was 10 years old. This year he won the national championship again – for the fourth time. the national championship four times. (win) since he was ten. (play) 4 When they left college, Lisa and Sue started making films together. They still make films. They films since they left college. (make) five films since they left college. (make) 10.2 Ask questions using the words in brackets. Use the present perfect simple (have/has done) or continuous (have/has been doing). 1 You have a friend who is learning Arabic. You ask: (how long / learn / Arabic?) How long have you been learning Arabic? 2 You have just arrived to meet a friend. She is waiting for you. You ask: (wait / long?) Have 3 You see somebody fishing by the river. You ask: (catch / any fish?) 4 Some friends of yours are having a party next week. You ask: (how many people / invite?) 5 A friend of yours is a teacher. You ask: (how long / teach?) 6 You meet somebody who is a writer. You ask: (how many books / write?) (how long / write / books?) 7 A friend of yours is saving money to go on a world trip. You ask: (how long / save?) (how much money / save?) 10.3 Put the verb into the present perfect simple or continuous. 1 Where have you been? Have you been playing (you / play) tennis? 2 Look! (somebody / break) that window. 3 You look tired. (you / work) hard? 4 ‘ (you / ever / work) in a factory?’ ‘No, never.’ 5 Where’s Lisa? Where (she / go)? 6 This is a very old book. (I / have) it since I was a child. 7 ‘Have you been busy?’ ‘No, (I / watch) TV.’ 8 My brother is an actor. (he / appear) in several films. 9 ‘Sorry I’m late.’ ‘That’s all right. (I / not / wait) long.’ 10 Are you OK? You look as if (you / cry). 11 ‘Is it still raining?’ ‘No, (it / stop).’ 12 The children are tired now. (they / play) in the garden. 13 (I / lose) my phone. (you / see) it? 14 (I / read) the book you lent me, but (I / not / finish) it yet. It’s really interesting. 15 (I / read) the book you lent me, so you can have it back now. facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib 21 Unit how long have you (been) … ? 11 A Study this example situation: Dan and Kate are married. They got married exactly 20 years ago, so today is their 20th wedding anniversary. They have been married for 20 years. We say: They are married. (present) but How long have they been married? (not How long are they married?) They have been married for 20 years. (not They are married for 20 years) We use the present perfect to talk about something that began in the past and still continues now. Compare the present and present perfect: Paul is in hospital. but He’s been in hospital since Monday. (= He has been …) (not Paul is in hospital since Monday) present he is we know do they have she is waiting but Do they have a car? How long have they had their car? present perfect he has been we have known have they had she has been waiting but She’s waiting for somebody. She hasn’t been waiting very long. past but B We know each other very well. We’ve known each other for a long time. (not We know) (present perfect) now I’ve known / I’ve had / I’ve lived etc. is the present perfect simple. I’ve been learning / I’ve been waiting etc. is the present perfect continuous. When we ask or say ‘how long’, the continuous is more usual (see Unit 10): I’ve been learning English since January. It’s been raining all morning. Richard has been doing the same job for 20 years. ‘How long have you been driving?’ ‘Since I was 17.’ Some verbs (for example, know and like) are not normally used in the continuous: How long have you known Jane? (not have you been knowing) I’ve had these shoes for ages. (not I’ve been having) See also Units 4A and 10C. For have, see Unit 17. C You can use either the continuous or simple with live and work: Julia has been living in this house for a long time. or Julia has lived … How long have you been working here? or How long have you worked here? But we use the simple (have lived etc.) with always: I’ve always lived in the country. (not always been living) D 22 We say ‘I haven’t (done something) since/for …’ ( present perfect simple): I haven’t seen Tom since Monday. (= Monday was the last time I saw him) Sarah hasn’t phoned for ages. (= the last time she phoned was ages ago) I haven’t … since/for ➜ Unit 8B facebook.com/LinguaLIB Present perfect continuous ➜ Units 9–10 vk.com/lingualib for and since ➜ Unit 12A Unit Exercises 11.1 Which is right? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11.2 11 Ben is a friend of mine. I know / I’ve known him very well. (I know is correct) I like your house. How long do you live / have you lived here? You’ll need an umbrella if you go out now. It’s raining / It’s been raining. The weather is / has been awful since I arrived here. I’m sorry I’m late. Are you waiting / Have you been waiting long? We’ve moved. We’re living / We’ve been living in New Street now. I met Maria only recently. I don’t know / I haven’t known her very long. Lisa is in Germany. She’s / She’s been there on a business trip. That’s a very old bike. How long do you have / have you had it? I’m not feeling good. I’m feeling / I’ve been feeling ill all day. Read the situations and write questions using the words in brackets. 1 A friend tells you that Paul is in hospital. You ask him: (how long / Paul / hospital?) How long has Paul been in hospital? 2 You know that Jane is a good friend of Katherine’s. You ask Jane: (how long / you / know / Katherine?) 3 Your friend’s sister went to Australia some time ago and she’s still there. You ask your friend: (how long / sister / in Australia?) 4 You meet a woman who tells you that she teaches English. You ask her: (how long / you / teach / English?) 5 Tom always wears the same jacket. It’s very old. You ask him: (how long / you / have / that jacket?) 6 You are talking to a friend about Joe, who now works at the airport. You ask your friend: (how long / Joe / work / airport?) 7 You meet somebody on a plane. She says that she lives in Chicago. You ask her: (you / always / live / in Chicago?) 11.3 Complete B’s answers to A’s questions. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 B Paul is in hospital, isn’t he? Do you see Lisa very often? Is Paul married? Is Amy married? Do you still play tennis? Are you waiting for the bus? You know Mel, don’t you? Jack is never ill, is he? Martin lives in Italy, doesn’t he? Sue lives in Berlin, doesn’t she? Is Joe watching TV? Do you watch TV a lot? Do you have a headache? Do you go to the cinema a lot? Would you like to go to New York one day? Yes, he has been in hospital since Monday. No, I haven’t seen her for three months. Yes, he married for ten years. Yes, she married to a German guy. No, I tennis for years. Yes, I for about 20 minutes. Yes, we each other a long time. No, he ill since I’ve known him. Yes, he in Milan. Yes, she in Berlin for many years. Yes, he TV all evening. No, I TV since last weekend. Yes, I a headache all morning. No, I to the cinema for ages. Yes, I to go to New York. (use always / want) facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib 23 Unit for and since 12 A when … ? and how long … ? We use for and since to say how long something has been happening. We use for + a period of time: We’ve been waiting for two hours. We use since + the start of a period: We’ve been waiting since 8 o’clock. for two hours two hours ago two hours 20 minutes five days for a long time six months 50 years since 8 o’clock 8 o’clock now a week ages years 8 o’clock Monday 12 May Sally has been working here for six months. (not since six months) I haven’t seen Tom for three days. B now since April 2001 Christmas lunchtime we arrived I got up Sally has been working here since April. (= from April until now) I haven’t seen Tom since Monday. We often leave out for (but not usually in negative sentences): They’ve been married for ten years. or They’ve been married ten years. They haven’t had a holiday for ten years. (you need for) You can use in instead of for in negative sentences (I haven’t … etc.): They haven’t had a holiday in ten years. (= for ten years) We do not use for + all … (all day / all my life etc.): I’ve lived here all my life. (not for all my life) C Compare when … ? (+ past simple) and how long … ? (+ present perfect): a: When did it start raining? b: It started raining an hour ago / at 1 o’clock. a: How long has it been raining? b: It’s been raining for an hour / since 1 o’clock. a: When did Joe and Kate first meet? ⎧ a long time ago. b: They first met ⎨ ⎩ when they were at school. a: How long have they known each other? ⎧ b: They’ve known each other ⎨ for a long time. ⎩ since they were at school. D We say: it’s (= it is) or it’s been (= it has been) a long time six months (etc.) since something happened It’s two years since I last saw Joe. or It’s been two years since … (= I haven’t seen Joe for two years) It’s ages since we went to the cinema. or It’s been ages since … (= We haven’t been to the cinema for ages) How long is it since Mrs Hill died? or How long has it been since … (= when did she die?) 24 How long have you (been) … ? ➜ Unit 11 facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib Unit Exercises 12.1 Write for or since. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12.2 12 It’s been raining since lunchtime. Paul has lived in Brazil ten years. I’m tired of waiting. We’ve been sitting here an hour. Kevin has been looking for a job he left school. I haven’t been to a party ages. I wonder where Joe is. I haven’t seen him last week. Jane is away on holiday. She’s been away Friday. The weather is dry. It hasn’t rained a few weeks. Look at each answer and choose the right question. 1 How long have they been married ? When did they get married? Ten years ago. (When did they get married? is correct) 12.3 12.4 2 How long have you had this car? When did you buy this car? 3 How long have you been waiting? When did you get here? 4 How long have you been doing your course? When did your course start? 5 How long has Anna been in London? When did Anna arrive in London? 6 How long have you known each other? When did you first meet each other? About five years. Only a few minutes. September. Last week. A long time. Read the situations and complete the sentences. 1 It’s raining. It’s been raining since lunchtime. It started raining at lunchtime. 2 Ann and Jess are friends. They first met years ago. They’ve known each other for 3 Mark is unwell. He became ill on Sunday. He has 4 Sarah is married. She’s been married for a year. She got 5 You have a headache. It started when you woke up. I’ve 6 Sue is in a meeting at work. It’s been going on since 9 o’clock. The meeting 7 You’re working in a hotel. You started working there six months ago. I’ve been 8 Kate is learning Japanese. She’s been doing this for a long time. Kate started years. Sunday. . I woke up. at 9 o’clock. . . Complete B’s sentences. A 1 2 3 4 B Do you often go on holiday? Have you seen Lisa recently? Do you still go swimming regularly? Do you still ride a bike these days? No, I No, I No, I No, I haven’t had a holiday for five years. about a month. a long time. ages. Now write B’s answers again. This time use It’s . . . since . . . . 5 (1) No, it’s five years since I last had a holiday. 6 (2) No, it’s 7 (3) No, 8 (4) facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib 25 Unit Present perfect and past 1 (I have done and I did) 13 A Study this example situation: Tom is looking for his key. He can’t find it. He has lost his key. (present perfect) This means that he doesn’t have his key now. Ten minutes later: Now Tom has found his key. He has it now. Has he lost his key? No, he has found it. Did he lose his key? Yes, he did. He lost his key (past simple) but now he has found it. (present perfect) The present perfect (something has happened) is a present tense. It tells us about the situation now. ‘Tom has lost his key’ = he doesn’t have his key now (see Unit 7). The past simple (something happened) tells us only about the past. If somebody says ‘Tom lost his key’, we don’t know whether he has the key now or not. We know only that he lost it at some time in the past. Compare present perfect and past simple: They’ve gone away. They’ll be back on Friday. (they are away now) They went away, but I think they’re back at home now. (not They’ve gone away) It has stopped raining now, so we don’t need the umbrella. (it isn’t raining now) It stopped raining for a while, but now it’s raining again. (not It has stopped) B You can use the present perfect for new or recent happenings: I’ve repaired the washing machine. It’s working OK now. ‘Hannah has had a baby! It’s a boy.’ ‘That’s great news.’ Usually, you can also use the past simple: I repaired the washing machine. It’s working OK now. Use the past simple (not the present perfect) for things that are not recent or new: Mozart was a composer. He wrote more than 600 pieces of music. (not has been … has written) My mother grew up in Italy. (not has grown) Compare: Somebody has invented a new type of washing machine. Who invented the telephone? (not has invented) C We use the present perfect to give new information (see Unit 7). But if we continue to talk about it, we normally use the past simple: a: Ow! I’ve burnt myself. b: How did you do that? (not have you done) a: I picked up a hot dish. (not have picked) a: Look! Somebody has spilt something on the sofa. b: Well, it wasn’t me. I didn’t do it. (not hasn’t been … haven’t done) 26 Past simple ➜ Unit 5 Present perfect ➜ Units 7–8 Present perfect and past 2 ➜ Unit 14 American English ➜ Appendix 7 facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib Unit Exercises 13.1 13 Complete the sentences. Use the present perfect where possible. Otherwise use the past simple. 1 2 I can’t get in. I ’ve lost key. 3 (lose) my The oﬀice is empty now. Everybody (go) home. 4 I meant to call you last night, but I (forget). Helen (go) to New York for a holiday, but she’s back home in London now. 5 6 before Can you help us? Our car (break) down. Are you OK? Yes, I (have) a headache, but it’s OK now. 13.2 Are the underlined parts of these sentences OK? Correct them where necessary. OK 1 Did you hear about Sophie? She’s given up her job. My mother grew up 2 My mother has grown up in Italy. 3 How many plays has William Shakespeare written? 4 I’ve forgotten his name. Is it Joe or Jack? 5 Who has invented paper? 6 Drugs have become a big problem everywhere. 7 We’ve washed the car, but now it’s dirty again. 8 Where have you been born? 9 Ellie has gone shopping. She’ll be back in about an hour. 10 Albert Einstein has been the scientist who has developed the theory of relativity. 13.3 Put the verb into the correct form, present perfect or past simple. 1 It stopped raining for a while, but now it’s raining again. (it / stop) 2 The town where I live is very different now. It has changed a lot. (it / change) 3 I studied German at school, but most of it now. (I / forget) 4 The police three people, but later they let them go. (arrest) 5 What do you think of my English? Do you think ? (it / improve) 6 Are you ready to go? your coffee? (you / finish) 7 for a job as a tour guide, but I wasn’t successful. (I / apply) 8 Where’s my bike? outside the house, but it’s not there now. (it / be) 9 Quick! We need to call an ambulance. an accident. (there / be) 10 a: I’ve found my phone. b: Oh, good. Where it? (you / find) a: at the bottom of my bag. (It / be) 11 a: Ben won’t be able to play tennis for a while. his arm. (He / break) b: Oh. How ? (that / happen) a: off a ladder. (He / fall) facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib 27 Unit Present perfect and past 2 (I have done and I did) 14 A We do not use the present perfect (I have done) when we talk about a finished time (for example, yesterday / last year / ten minutes ago etc.). We use a past tense: It was very cold yesterday. (not has been) Paul and Lucy arrived ten minutes ago. (not have arrived) Did you eat a lot of sweets when you were a child? (not have you eaten) I got home late last night. I was very tired and went straight to bed. Use the past to ask When … ? or What time … ? : When did your friends arrive? (not have … arrived) What time did you finish work? Compare: Present perfect Tom has lost his key. He can’t get into the house. Is Carla here or has she left? B Compare: Present perfect (have done) I’ve done a lot of work today. Past simple (did) I did a lot of work yesterday. We use the present perfect for a period of time that continues until now. For example: today / this week / since 2010. We use the past simple for a finished time in the past. For example: yesterday / last week / from 2010 to 2014. past 28 Past simple Tom lost his key yesterday. He couldn’t get into the house. When did Carla leave? unfinished finished today yesterday now past now It hasn’t rained this week. It didn’t rain last week. Have you seen Anna this morning? (it is still morning now) Did you see Anna this morning? (it is now afternoon or evening) Have you seen Ben recently? (in the last few days or weeks) Did you see Ben on Sunday? I’ve been working here since 2010. (I still work here now) I worked here from 2010 to 2014. (I don’t work here now) I don’t know where Lisa is. I haven’t seen her. (= I haven’t seen her recently) a: Was Lisa at the party on Sunday? b: I don’t think so. I didn’t see her. We’ve been waiting for an hour. (we are still waiting now) We waited (or were waiting) for an hour. (we are no longer waiting) Jack lives in Los Angeles. He has lived there for seven years. Jack lived in New York for ten years. Now he lives in Los Angeles. I’ve never ridden a horse. (in my life) I never rode a bike when I was a child. It’s the last day of your holiday. You say: It’s been a really good holiday. I’ve really enjoyed it. After you come back from holiday you say: It was a really good holiday. I really enjoyed it. Past simple ➜ Unit 5 Present perfect ➜ Units 7–8 Present perfect and past 1 ➜ Unit 13 facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib Exercises 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 Unit 14 Are the underlined parts of these sentences OK? Correct them where necessary. OK 1 I’ve lost my key. I can’t find it anywhere. Did you eat 2 Have you eaten a lot of sweets when you were a child? 3 I’ve bought a new car. You must come and see it. 4 I’ve bought a new car last week. 5 Where have you been yesterday evening? 6 Maria has left school in 1999. 7 I’m looking for Mike. Have you seen him? 8 ‘Have you been to Paris?’ ‘Yes, many times.’ 9 I’m very hungry. I haven’t eaten much today. 10 When has this bridge been built? Make sentences from the words in brackets. Use the present perfect or past simple. 1 (it / not / rain / this week) It hasn’t rained this week. 2 (the weather / be / cold / recently) The weather 3 (it / cold / last week) It 4 (I / not / eat / any fruit yesterday) I 5 (I / not / eat / any fruit today) 6 (Emily / earn / a lot of money / this year) 7 (she / not / earn / so much / last year) 8 (you / have / a holiday recently?) Put the verb into the correct form, present perfect or past simple. 1 I haven’t been (I / not / be) to Canada, but I’d like to go there. 2 Paul and Lucy arrived (arrive) about ten minutes ago. 3 I’m tired. (I / not / sleep) well last night. 4 (There / be) a bus drivers’ strike last week, so (there / be) no buses. 5 Edward (work) in a bank for 15 years. Then (he / give) it up. Now he works as a gardener. 6 Mary lives in Dublin. (She / live) there all her life. 7 My grandfather (die) before I was born. (I / never / meet) him. 8 I don’t know Karen’s husband. (I / never / meet) him. 9 It’s nearly lunchtime, and (I / not / see) Martin all morning. I wonder where he is. 10 a: (you / go) to the cinema last night? b: Yes, but the movie (be) awful. 11 a: (It / be) very warm here since we arrived. b: Yes, (it / be) 35 degrees yesterday. 12 a: Where do you live? b: In Boston. a: How long (you / live) there? b: Five years. a: Where (you / live) before that? b: In Chicago. a: And how long (you / live) in Chicago? b: Two years. Write sentences about yourself using the ideas in brackets. 1 (something you haven’t done today) I haven’t eaten any fruit today. 2 (something you haven’t done today) 3 (something you didn’t do yesterday) 4 (something you did yesterday evening) 5 (something you haven’t done recently) 6 (something you’ve done a lot recently) ➜ Additional exercises 2–4 (pages 303–04), 14–15 (pages 310–11) facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib 29 Unit Past perfect (I had done) 15 A Study this example situation: Sarah and Paul went to the same party last week, but they didn’t see each other. Paul left the party at 10.30 and Sarah arrived at 11 o’clock. Bye! 10.30 So when Sarah arrived at the party, Paul wasn’t there. PAUL He had gone home. had gone is the past perfect: 11.00 Hi! I/we/they/you he/she/it had (= I’d etc.) (= he’d etc.) gone seen finished etc. SARAH The past perfect (simple) is had + past participle (gone/seen/finished etc.). Sometimes we talk about something that happened in the past: Sarah arrived at the party. This is the starting point of the story. Then, if we want to talk about things that happened before this time, we use the past perfect (had …): When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul had already gone home. Some more examples: When we got home last night, we found that somebody had broken into the flat. Karen didn’t come to the cinema with us. She’d already seen the movie. At first I thought I’d done the right thing, but I soon realised that I’d made a big mistake. The people sitting next to me on the plane were nervous. They hadn’t flown before. or They’d never flown before. B Compare present perfect (have seen etc.) and past perfect (had seen etc.): Present perfect Past perfect had seen have seen past Who is that woman? I’ve seen her before, but I can’t remember where. We aren’t hungry. We’ve just had lunch. The house is dirty. They haven’t cleaned it for weeks. C now I wasn’t sure who she was. I’d seen her before, but I couldn’t remember where. We weren’t hungry. We’d just had lunch. The house was dirty. They hadn’t cleaned it for weeks. Compare past simple (left, was etc.) and past perfect (had left, had been etc.): Past simple 30 past now Past perfect a: Was Tom there when you arrived? b: Yes, but he left soon afterwards. a: Was Tom there when you arrived? b: No, he’d already left. Kate wasn’t at home when I phoned. She was at her mother’s house. Kate had just got home when I phoned. She’d been at her mother’s house. Past perfect continuous ➜ Unit 16 facebook.com/LinguaLIB Irregular verbs (gone/seen etc.) ➜ Appendix 1 vk.com/lingualib Unit Exercises 15.1 15 Read the situations and write sentences using the words in brackets. 1 There was a picture lying on the floor. (It / fall / off the wall) It had fallen off the wall. 2 The people sitting next to you on the plane were nervous. It was their first flight. (They / not / fly / before) They hadn’t flown before. 3 You went back to your home town recently after many years. It wasn’t the same as before. (It / change / a lot) It 4 Somebody sang a song. You didn’t know it. (I / not / hear / it / before) I 5 I invited Rachel to the party, but she couldn’t come. (She / arrange / to do something else) 6 You went to the cinema last night. You got to the cinema late. (The film / already / start) 7 Last year we went to Mexico. It was our first time there. (We / not / be / there / before) We 8 I met Daniel last week. It was good to see him again after such a long time. (I / not / see / him for five years) 9 I offered my friends something to eat, but they weren’t hungry. (They / just / have / lunch) 10 Sam played tennis yesterday. He wasn’t very good at it because it was his first game ever. (He / never / play / before) 15.2 15.3 Use the sentences on the left to complete the paragraphs on the right. These sentences are in the order in which they happened – so (a) happened before (b), (b) before (c) etc. But your paragraph begins with the underlined sentence, so sometimes you need the past perfect. 1 (a) Somebody broke into the office during ⎫ We arrived at work in the morning and found ⎪ that somebody had broken into the office the night. ⎬ we called the police. (b) We arrived at work in the morning. ⎪ during the night. So (c) We called the police. ⎭ 2 (a) Laura went out this morning. (b) I rang her doorbell. (c) There was no answer. ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ I went to Laura’s house this morning and rang her doorbell, but no answer. out. 3 (a) Joe came back from holiday a few days ago. (b) I met him the same day. (c) He looked very well. ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ I met Joe a few days ago. 4 (a) (b) (c) (d) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ Yesterday James from Amy. James sent Amy lots of emails. She never replied to them. Yesterday he got a phone call from her. He was surprised. but just holiday. very well. surprised. lots of emails, . Put the verb into the correct form, past perfect (I had done) or past simple (I did). 1 Paul wasn’t at the party when I arrived. He’d gone (He / go) home. 2 I felt very tired when I got home, so (I / go) straight to bed. 3 The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody (go) to bed. 4 Mark travels a lot. When I first met him, (he / already / travel) round the world. 5 Sorry I’m late. The car (break) down on my way here. 6 We were driving along the road when (we / see) a car which (break) down, so (we / stop) to help. ➜ Additional exercises 5–8 (pages 304–07) facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib 31 Unit Past perfect continuous (I had been doing) 16 A Study this example situation: yesterday morning Yesterday morning I got up and looked out of the window. The sun was shining, but the ground was very wet. It had been raining. It was not raining when I looked out of the window. The sun was shining. But it had been raining before. had been -ing is the past perfect continuous: I/we/you/they had he/she/it (= I’d etc.) been (= he’d etc.) doing working playing etc. Some more examples: My hands were dirty because I’d been repairing my bike. Tom was tired when he got home. He’d been working hard all day. I went to Madrid a few years ago and stayed with a friend of mine. She hadn’t been living there very long, but she knew the city very well. You can say that something had been happening before something else happened: We’d been playing tennis for about half an hour when it started to rain heavily. B Compare have been -ing (present perfect continuous) and had been -ing (past perfect continuous): Present perfect continuous Past perfect continuous I had been -ing I have been -ing past past now I hope the bus comes soon. I’ve been waiting for 20 minutes. (before now) James is out of breath. He’s been running. (= he has been …) At last the bus came. I’d been waiting for 20 minutes. (before the bus came) James was out of breath. He’d been running. (= he had been …) C Compare was -ing (past continuous) and had been -ing: It wasn’t raining when we went out. The sun was shining. But it had been raining, so the ground was wet. Katherine was lying on the sofa. She was tired because she’d been working hard. D Some verbs (for example, know) are not normally used in continuous forms (be + -ing): We were good friends. We had known each other for years. (not had been knowing) A few years ago Lisa cut her hair really short. I was surprised because she’d always had long hair. (not she’d been having) For a list of these verbs, see Unit 4A. For have, see Unit 17 32 Present perfect continuous ➜ Units 9–10 Past perfect simple ➜ Unit 15 facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib now Unit Exercises 16.1 16 Read the situations and make sentences using the words in brackets. 1 Tom was very tired when he got home. (He / work / hard all day) He’d been working hard all day. 2 The children came into the house. They had a football and they were both very tired. (They / play / football) 3 I was disappointed when I had to cancel my holiday. (I / look / forward to it) 4 Anna woke up in the middle of the night. She was frightened and didn’t know where she was. (She / have / a bad dream) 5 When I got home, Mark was sitting in front of the TV. He had just turned it off. (He / watch / a film) 6 The people waiting at the bus stop were getting impatient. The bus was very late. (They / wait / a long time) 16.2 Read the situations and complete the sentences. 1 We played tennis yesterday. We didn’t finish our game. We’d been playing (We / play) for half an hour when it started (it / start) to rain. 2 I had arranged to meet Tom in a restaurant. I arrived and waited for him to come. (I / wait) for 20 minutes when (I / realise) that (I / be) in the wrong restaurant. 3 Sarah worked in a company for a long time. The company no longer exists. At the time the company (go) out of business, Sarah (work) there for twelve years. 4 I went to a concert. Soon after the orchestra began playing, something strange happened. The orchestra (play) for about ten minutes when a man in the audience suddenly (start) shouting. Now make your own sentence: 5 I began walking along the road. I when 16.3 Which is right? 1 It was noisy next door last night. Our neighbours were having / had been having a party. (were having is correct) 2 At the end of our journey we were extremely tired. We were travelling / We’d been travelling for more than 24 hours. 3 James was on his hands and knees on the floor. He was looking / He’d been looking for his contact lens. 4 Sue was sitting on the ground. She was out of breath. She was running / She’d been running. 5 John and I went for a walk. He was walking / He’d been walking very fast and I had difficulty keeping up with him. 6 I was sad when I sold my car. I’ve had it / I’d had it for a very long time. 7 I was sad when my local cafe closed. I was going / I’d been going there for many years. 8 I’m running a marathon next month. I’ve been training / I’d been training for it every day. 9 I had arranged to meet Kate, but I was late. When I finally arrived, she was waiting / she’d been waiting for me. She was annoyed because she was waiting / she’d been waiting such a long time. 10a Joe and I work for the same company. He joined the company before me. When I started a few years ago, he was already working / he’d already been working there. 10b I started working at the company a few years ago. At the time I started, Joe was already working / had already been working there for two years. 10c Joe still works for the company. He’s been working / He’d been working there a long time now. ➜ Additional exercises 5–8 (pages 304–07) facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib 33 Unit have and have got 17 A have and have got (= for possession, relationships, illnesses, appointments etc.) You can use have or have got. There is no difference in meaning. You can say: They have a new car. or They’ve got a new car. Lisa has two brothers. or Lisa has got two brothers. I have a headache. or I’ve got a headache. Our house has a small garden. or Our house has got a small garden. He has a few problems. or He’s got a few problems. I have a driving lesson tomorrow. or I’ve got a driving lesson tomorrow. With these meanings (possession etc.), we do not use continuous forms (I’m having etc.): We’re enjoying our holiday. We have / We’ve got a nice room in the hotel. (not We’re having a nice room) For the past we use had (usually without got): Lisa had long hair when she was a child. (not Lisa had got) B In questions and negative sentences there are three possible forms: Do you have any questions? or Have you got any questions? or Have you any questions? (less usual) I don’t have any questions. or I haven’t got any questions. or I haven’t any questions. (less usual) Does she have a car? or Has she got a car? or Has she a car? (less usual) She doesn’t have a car. or She hasn’t got a car. or She hasn’t a car. (less usual) In past questions and negative sentences, we use did/didn’t: Did you have a car when you were living in Paris? I didn’t have my phone, so I couldn’t call you. Lisa had long hair, didn’t she? C have breakfast / have a shower / have a good time etc. We also use have (but not have got) for things we do or experience. For example: have breakfast / dinner / a cup of coffee / something to eat etc. a bath / a shower / a swim / a break / a rest / a party / a holiday an accident / an experience / a dream a look (at something) a chat / a discussion / a conversation (with somebody) trouble / difficulty / fun / a good time etc. a baby (= give birth to a baby) Have got is not possible in these expressions. Compare: Sometimes I have (= eat) a sandwich for my lunch. (not I’ve got) but I’ve got / I have some sandwiches. Would you like one? You can use continuous forms (I’m having etc.) with these expressions: We’re enjoying our holiday. We’re having a great time. ‘Where’s Mark?’ ‘He’s having a shower.’ In questions and negative sentences we use do/does/did: I don’t usually have a big breakfast. (not I usually haven’t) Where does Chris usually have lunch? Did you have trouble finding somewhere to stay? (not Had you) 34 have (got) to … ➜ Unit 31 American English ➜ Appendix 7 facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib Unit Exercises 17.1 Which goes with which? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17.2 17.3 I’m not free tomorrow morning. Rachel is an only child. We’ve got plenty of time. You’ve got a really good voice. I don’t feel very well this morning. Laura studied at university. I’ve got a question. James has got a lot of experience. a b c d e f g h She’s got a degree in physics. I’ve got a sore throat. There’s no need to hurry. I’ve got a driving lesson. Maybe you can answer it. I think he should get the job. I wish I could sing as well as you. She’s got no brothers or sisters. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 d Complete the sentences using have. 1 She couldn’t get into the house. She didn’t have a key. 2 Is there anything you’d like to ask? Do you have any questions? 3 They can’t pay their bills. They any money. 4 We got wet in the rain yesterday. We an umbrella. 5 Jack a car. He can’t afford one and he can’t drive anyway. 6 ‘Excuse me, a pen I could borrow?’ ‘Yes, sure. Here you are.’ 7 I was very busy yesterday. I time to go shopping. 8 ‘Tell me about Jack. a job?’ ‘Yes, he works at the hospital.’ 9 When you worked in your last job, your own office? 10 ‘Where’s the remote control?’ ‘I don’t know. I it.’ 11 ‘Tom a motorbike, he?’ ‘Yes, that’s right. A long time ago.’ Are the underlined words OK? Change them where necessary. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 17.4 17 I’m not free tomorrow morning. I’ve got a driving lesson. Lisa had got long hair when she was a child. I couldn’t contact you because I hadn’t my phone. ‘Are you feeling OK?’ ‘No, I’m having a cold.’ I’m not working right now. I’m having a break. I felt really tired. I hadn’t any energy. It’s a small town. It doesn’t have many shops. Was your trip OK? Had you any problems? My friend called me when I was having breakfast. The last time I saw Steve, he was having a beard. We don’t need to hurry. We have plenty of time. How often have you a shower? OK Lisa had long hair Complete the sentences. Use an expression with have in the correct form. Choose from: have a baby have a look 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 have a break have lunch have a chat have a party have trouble have a nice time have a shower have a holiday I don’t eat much during the day. I never have lunch . David starts work at 8 o’clock and at 10.30. We last week. We invited lots of people. There’s something wrong with my bike. Can you at it for me? Joe is away on holiday at the moment. I hope he . I met some friends in the supermarket yesterday. We stopped and . ‘ finding the book you wanted?’ ‘No, I found it OK.’ Suzanne a few weeks ago. It’s her second child. I when the light went out suddenly. I’d like to go away somewhere. I for a long time. facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib 35 Unit used to (do) 18 A Study this example situation: a few years ago Nicola doesn’t travel much these days. She prefers to stay at home. But she used to travel a lot. She used to go away two or three times a year. She used to travel a lot = she travelled often in the past, but she doesn’t do this any more. she used to travel she doesn’t travel past now these days B I used to do something = I did it often in the past, but not any more: I used to play tennis a lot, but I don’t play very much now. David used to spend a lot of money on clothes. These days he can’t afford it. ‘Do you go to the cinema much?’ ‘Not now, but I used to.’ (= I used to go) We also use used to … for things that were true, but are not true any more: This building is now a furniture shop. It used to be a cinema. I used to think Mark was unfriendly, but now I realise he’s a very nice person. I’ve started drinking coffee recently. I never used to like it before. Lisa used to have very long hair when she was a child. C ‘I used to do something’ is past. There is no present. You cannot say ‘I use to do’. To talk about the present, we use the present simple (I do). Compare: past present he used to play we used to live there used to be he plays we live there is We used to live in a small village, but now we live in a city. There used to be four cinemas in the town. Now there is only one. D The normal question form is did (you) use to … ? : Did you use to eat a lot of sweets when you were a child? (= did you do this often?) The negative form is didn’t use to … (used not to … is also possible): I didn’t use to like him. (or I used not to like him.) 36 E Compare I used to do and I was doing: I used to watch TV a lot. (= I watched TV often in the past, but I don’t do this any more) I was watching TV when Rob called. (= I was in the middle of watching TV) F Do not confuse I used to do and I am used to doing (see Unit 61). The structures and meanings are different: I used to live alone. (= I lived alone in the past, but I no longer live alone.) I am used to living alone. (= I live alone, and it’s not a problem for me because I’ve lived alone for some time.) Past continuous (I was doing) ➜ Unit 6 would (= used to) ➜ Unit 36 be/get used to (doing something) ➜ Unit 61 facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib Unit Exercises 18 18.1 Complete the sentences with used to + a suitable verb. 1 Nicola used to travel a lot, but she doesn’t go away much these days. 2 Sophie a motorbike, but last year she sold it and bought a car. 3 Our friends moved to Spain a few years ago. They in Paris. 4 Jackie my best friend, but we aren’t friends any more. 5 I rarely eat ice cream now, but I it when I was a child. 6 It only takes me about 40 minutes to get to work now that the new road is open. It more than an hour. 7 There a hotel near the airport, but it closed a long time ago. 8 I in a factory. It wasn’t my favourite job. 18.2 Complete the sentences. Choose from the box. 1 Lisa used to have very long hair when she was a child. 2 We to watch TV a lot, but we don’t have a TV any more. 3 Lisa works in a shop now. She a receptionist in a hotel. 4 What games you use to play when you were a child? 5 I like big cities, but now I prefer the countryside. 6 In your last job, how many hours a day did you to work? 7 I don’t travel very much these days, but I used . 8 I used to to run ten kilometres, but I can’t run that far now. 9 These days I eat more than before. I use to eat as much. 18.3 Compare what Karen said ten years ago and what she says today: TEN YEARS AGO I play the piano. I travel a lot. I’m very lazy. I don’t like cheese. I never drink tea. I have a dog. TODAY I eat lots of cheese now. My dog died two years ago. I work very hard these days. did didn’t to use used used to used to be used to have be able I haven’t played the piano for a long time. I don’t go away much these days. Tea’s great! I like it now. Now write about how Karen has changed. Use used to / didn’t use to / never used to in the first part of your sentence. 1 She used to travel a lot, but she doesn’t go away much these days. 2 She used but 3 but 4 but 5 but 6 but 18.4 Write sentences about yourself. Begin I used to … (I used to be/work/like/play etc.) 1 I used to live in a small village, but now I live in a city. 2 I used to play tennis a lot, but I don’t play any more. 3 I used , but 4 I 5 Now begin with I didn’t use to … . 6 I didn’t use to read a lot, but I do now. 7 I didn’t 8 ➜ Additional exercise 9 (page 307) facebook.com/LinguaLIB vk.com/lingualib 37 Unit Present tenses (I am doing / I do) for the future 19 A Present continuous (I am doing) with a future meaning This is Ben’s diary for next week. He is playing tennis on Monday afternoon. He is going to the dentist on Tuesday morning. He is meeting Kate on Friday. In all these examples, Ben has already decided and arranged to do these things. I’m doing something (tomorrow etc.) = I have already decided and arranged to do it: a: What are you doing on Saturday evening? (not What do you do) b: I’m going to the cinema. (not I go) a: What time is Katherine arriving tomorrow? b: Half past ten. We’re meeting her at the station. I’m not working tomorrow, so we can go out somewhere. Steve isn’t playing football next Saturday. He’s hurt his leg. We do not normally use will to talk about what we have arranged to do: What are you doing tonight? (not What will you do) Alex is getting married next month. (not will get) We also use the present continuous for an action just before you start to do it. This happens especially with verbs of movement (go/come/leave etc.): I’m tired. I’m going to bed now. Goodnight. (not I go to bed now) ‘Tina, are you ready yet?’ ‘Yes, I’m coming.’ (not I come) B Present s